|Ict coursework help gcse||How to write negative scenarios in testing|
|Cover letter layout template||348|
|Objective statement for resume examples engineer||390|
|Terminology of paper industry||This test is only an indicator of the pH of the surface area tested and can not be considered a reliable test terminology of paper industry the total condition of any paper or board. Pulping Process —Any process for converting fibrous raw material into pulp. Descriptive of a material or substance capable of a high degree of light transmission e. Yellowing —Sometimes called color reversion. Highlight Halftone The lightest or whitest parts in a photograph terminology of paper industry in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or the absence of all dots. Coppicing Forest farming Forest gardening Logging Manufacturing lumber plywood pulp and paper sawmilling Products biochar biomass charcoal non-timber palm oil rayon rubber tanbark Rail transport Tree farm Christmas trees Wood engineered fuel mahogany spruce-pine-fir teak Woodworking.|
|Terminology of paper industry||427|
Degree of acid found in a given paper substance measured by pH level. From 0 to 7 is classified acid as opposed to 7 to 14, which is classified alkaline. A right angle to which the fiber direction of a piece of paper lies. Folding with, not against, the grain is recommended. Paper that is dried by circulating hot air around it with little or no tension or restraint on the paper. This gives the paper a hard cockle finish typical of bond papers. Liquids added to the fountain solution of a printing press to reduce the surface tension of water.
Cards of paper with matching envelopes generally used for social stationery, announcements, weddings, greetings, etc. A paper finish, usually used in book and cover papers, that has a tactile surface. Usually used in natural white or creamwhite colors. Extra space at the binding edge of a foldout, usually on a French fold, which allows folding and tipping without interfering with the copy.
Additional pressure applied through the impression cylinder assisting the image transfer to the press sheet. Substance used as a standard for white, in lieu of the availability of a practical percent reflecting diffuser. Manufactured paper that will be further processed as laminated, Duplex Cover, Bristol Cover, or off machine embossed papers. The weight in pounds per ream of paper cut to its basic size in inches. A metric system is used outside of North America.
The operations that comprise collating, perforating, and folding the elements of a form into the finished product. In fourcolor process printing, the black plate made to give definition to neutral tones and detail. In offset lithography, the rubbercoated fabric clamped around the blanket cylinder, which transfers the image from plate to paper. In printing, a type of photoprint used as a proof.
It can be folded to show how the finished printed product will look. Strong, durable writing paper, consisting of wood, cotton, or both, most commonly used for letterheads, stationery, business forms, etc…. A high quality heavy weight paper, sometimes made with cotton fiber prepared or glued together, usually with a caliper thickness of 0.
Unprinted sheets of actual paper folded in the signature size and signature number of a given job, to determine bulk. Joining two webs of paper, placing them end-to-end and pasting a strip over and under to make a continuous sheet without overlapping. When printing, the spots of ink pigments on printing plates or press rollers, due to the vehicle carrying the ink not being able to hold the pigment in suspension.
A vertical series of steel rolls at the end of the paper machine to increase the smoothness of the paper. To impart a smooth finish on paper by passing the web of paper between polished metal rolls to increase gloss and smoothness. Improper drying of ink. Ink vehicle has been absorbed too rapidly into the paper leaving a dry, weak pigment layer which dusts easily.
A light duplication of a printed image on the other side of the same sheet, created by chemical reaction by the ink during the drying stages; also referred to as "Gas ghosting". Wood fiber cooked using chemicals producing a pulp used to manufacture numerous printing papers and paperboard products.
Papers manufactured with chemical pulp are called "free-sheet" papers. Chlorine and its compounds were commonly used to bleach fibers. This has been mostly eliminated. Virgin fibers are generally ECF, meaning no elemental chlorine or TCF meaning the bleaching is done with hydrogen peroxide, oxygen or ozone. Recycled fibers are generally PCF, meaning they were put back into the paper without the use of any chlorine or its compounds. Describes paper fibers that are uniformly dispersed within a sheet of paper -a characteristic of quality paper.
Same as cloud effect; cloudy. Opposite of close formation. Indicates unevenness and lack of uniformity of fiber structure. Printed bars of ink colors used to monitor a print image. These bars show the amount of ink to be applied by the press, the registration, and the densities across the press sheet.
Instructions attached to artwork or disc with the location, percentage, and type of color required. Printing done using cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks, each requiring its own negative and plate. Also called process color or four-color process. The method used in breaking down the primary colors needed to prepare plates for printing color work. A particular typeface that allows more print per line, as though the letters were squashed at their sides. Allowing paper to adjust itself to the temperature and humidity of the printing plant prior to use.
Company that converts paper from its original form to usable products such as envelopes, label stock, announcements etc. Papers utilizing cotton linters. Today most cotton content papers are made for letterhead applications. The cotton fibers that adhere to the cottonseed used to produce pulp for cotton fiber papers. As a byproduct of the cotton industry, EPA recognizes it as recovered fiber.
On a paper making machine the equipment that helps remove excess water from the moving web of paper prior to the wet press section of a paper machine. Durable, heavier weight papers, available in a variety of finishes and colors, used for the cover of pamphlets, annual reports, business cards, etc…. A line perpendicular to the direction the paper travels through the papermaking machine. Also referred to as Cross direction or Cross grain.
Undesirable distortion or waviness occurring to the paper due to the presence of excess moisture or humidity. Term used for watermarked letterhead papers to indicate the watermark will be cut to appear in a predetermined position on the finished sheet. Also referred to as a localized watermark. Paper dust resulting from cutting or trimming the paper which can transfer to printing blankets causing problems during a press run. Double-thick" describes a sheet of paper made by bonding two thicknesses of paper together resulting in an extra-stiff sheet.
In lithography, cloth covered, parchment paper or rubber rollers that distribute the dampening to the press plate. Water, gum buffered acid, and various types of etches used to keep the non-image areas of the plate moist, and preventing them from accepting ink, in the lithographic printing process; also called fountain solution.
As the wet paper web passes under the turning watermark dandy the designs are impressed into the paper and a permanent watermark is left in the sheet. On the wet end of the paper machine the straps or deckle rulers that prevent the fiber from overflowing the sides of the machine.
The deckle determines how wide the paper on a particular machine will be. Refers to the feathered edge on paper produced when fibers flow against the deckle or edge of the web. Deliberately produced for aesthetic purposes, a deckle edge is found especially on formal stationery and announcements. A deckle edge can be created by an air jet, or also by a stream of water.
A process which removes ink, toner, coatings and most fillers from recovered paper. The environmental priority is to make this process TCF, totally chlorine free. The average amount of dirt in a specific size of paper area. Both virgin and recycled sheets have "dirt," although recycled paper has significantly higher dirt counts. The dirt should always be small enough not to interfere with the quality of the finished printed piece.
Area of the originating press where the freshly printed sheets are piled as they leave the impression section. Reflection instrument measuring the density of colored ink to determine its consistency throughout a press run. Identifies the weight of paper compared to the volume; it is directly related to the paper's absorbency, stiffness, and opacity. Pressure vessel in which wood chips are cooked to separate fibers from each other and to remove detrimental particles.
Characteristic of paper to retain its dimensions in all directions under the stress of production and adverse changes in humidity. Dirt in paper consists of any imbedded foreign matter or specks, which contrast in color to the remainder of the sheet. Company which purchases paper from mill for resale to printers and end-users.
Usually a distributor has protected or franchised product lines and territories. Inventory, warehousing, distribution and transportation of product are among the many services offered to paper buyers. Also called a merchant. Tabbed sheets of index or other heavy stock, used to identify and separate specific sections of a book; used in loose-leaf and bound books. Handwork on engravings and lithographic screened halftone negatives for correcting tonal values in either black-and-white or color work.
A means of extending the range of density available with printing ink by printing twice with black ink, using two specially prepared halftone negatives. Also called double-black duotone. Two halftone negatives combined onto one printing plate, having greater tonal range than a conventional halftone negatives.
One negative reproduces highlight and shadows, the other middle tones. This is not to be confused with duotone or double-black printing. At times, with certain papers, the feeder will feed two sheets instead of one, and when pressures are extreme or out of balance, the blanket may slip at the pressure point, resulting in a slur or double image.
Duration of an unscheduled stoppage of machines or equipment printing presses, papermaking machines, typesetting equipment, etc. Register trouble when the dot is enlarged toward the back nongripper edge of the sheet. See Slur. A term used to describe an ink chemist's method of roughly determining coating or ink. The application by a blade or a bar of a thin film of coating or ink to a piece of paper.
Wet paper passes through these large cylindrical steam heated rolls that dry paper webs. The dry-end of the paper machine. Piercing of stacks of papers in a precision manner with round hollow drills at high speeds. Loose-leaf notebook paper is an example of drilled paper.
In printing, halftone with no screen dots in the highlights or background. Also, color not sensed by optical reading devices. Also, ink colors which will not image a photographic plate. On the paper machine, it is the section where the dryers, cutters, slitters and reels are located. Oven on web offset press through which the web of printed paper passes after it leaves the final printing unit.
The drying process, standard when heat-set inks are used, heats the web to about degrees Fahrenheit. Either gas or electricity dries the vehicles and air blasts drive off the volatile gases. Page or set of pages assembled in the exact position, form and style desired for the finished piece of printed work. Used as a model or sample for the printer. The accumulation of loose particles from the paper on the nonimage areas of the blanket.
Particles are of very small size. Similar in appearance to a color photograph but different in the important respect that it is produced from a transparency by printing continuous tones of color dyes. Pulp bleached without the use of elemental chlorine.
Generally this is virgin fiber bleached with chlorine dioxide. Continuous automatic cut-size sheeter, ream wrapper, ream labeler, ream accumulator, case packer, lidder, bander and palletizer. The U. Environmental Protection Agency, which publishes guidelines for minimum recycled product content for use by federal agencies for purchasing standards. Many state and local governments and businesses have voluntarily adopted these. The EPA is charged with most of the environmental responsibility for guidance, direction, monitoring and enforcement in the United States.
High speed computer, which instantly calculates the necessary color correction by measuring the original copy. In digital printing, any technology that reproduces pages without the use of traditional ink, water or chemistry. In halftone photography, elongated dots, which give improved gradation of tones particularly in middle tomes and vignettes - also called chain dots. In composition, a unit of measurement exactly as wide and high as the point sizes being set. So named because the letter "M" in early fonts was usually cast on a square body.
A finish imparted to a web of paper through an embossing machine. The paper will take on a raised or depressed surface resembling wood, cloth, leather, or other pattern. Impressing an image in relief to achieve a raised surface; either over printing or on a blank paper called blind embossing. In digital prepress, a file format used to transfer graphic images within compatible applications.
A file containing structured PostScript code, comments and a screen display image. Strong, fine quality papers, either plain or coated and sometimes colored or marbled used at both ends of a book. Also called sheets. Printing by the intaglio process. Ink is applied to the paper under extreme pressure resulting in a printed surface being raised. Used for fine letterheads, wedding invitations, etc. A general reduction in the overall contrast of a halftone, to allow type to be easily readable when printed over it.
A two-color reproduction, using single halftone negative, usually blank, and a halftone screen tint for the background, usually in color. In printing, distortion of paper on the press due to waviness in the paper caused by absorption of moisture at the edges of the paper, particularly across the grain.
On a printing press, the rubber wheels that move the sheets of paper from the feed pile to the grippers. The section of a printing press that separates the sheets and feeds them into position for printing. Abbreviated FPM, this term refers usually to the speed of a papermaking machine in terms of how many feet per minute the forming web of paper traverses the length of the machine.
A finish applied to the paper at the wet end of the paper machine by using felts of a distinctive weave rather than standard or regular wove felts. Woven, endless belt made of wool, cotton or synthetic materials used to transport the paper web on the paper machine, during manufacture. Felts act as a conveyor while at the same time removing water from paper as it progresses through the paper machine.
Refers to the alignment of the fibers in the sheet. The degree of alignment can be controlled in the paper making process. The small strands of wood, cotton or other cellulose product that is used to make the paper. In the premium paper market all of the fiber is lignin free. Fiber before it is made into the finished product us referred to as pulp. String-like elements that are loosened from the paper fibers during the beating process.
They aid in the bonding processes when paper is being manufactured. Act of loosening the fibrillae during the mechanical process of beating the fibers in preparation for papermaking. Minerals, such as clay and other white pigments, added to pulp to improve the opacity, smoothness, brightness, and printing capabilities of paper. A condition in offset lithography where ink fills the area between the halftone dots or plugs up the type; also known as plugging or filling up.
These include smooth, felt, laid, linen and others. A strip of paper protruding from a roll or skid of paper. May be used to mark a splice in a roll of paper or used to mark off reams in a skid. In halftone photography, the supplementary exposure given to strengthen the dots in the shadow areas of negatives. Printing two or more colors without overlaying color dots i. This differs from process color, which is a blending of four colors to produce a broad range of colors.
A press on which plates are positioned along a flat metal bed against which the paper is pressed by the impression cylinder, as compared to a rotary press which prints from curved plates. A device that scans images in a manner similar to a photocopy machine; the original art is positioned face down on a glass plate.
Letterpress printing using a form of relief printing ; formally called aniline printing. Synthetic or rubber relief plates, special inks, presses procedures. To reverse a negative or positive, to bring the underside out on top. A negative that must be flopped has emulsion on the wrong side. The property of ink which causes it to level out when still a liquid; "short" inks have poor flow, and "long" inks have good flow. An undesirable neutral density in the clear areas of a photographic film or paper, in which the image is either locally or entirely veiled by a deposit of silver.
Fog may be due to flare, unsafe darkroom illumination, age, or processing conditions. A tissue-like material in sheet or roll form covered on one side with a metallic coloring used for stamping. A paper test which measures the number of double back and forth folds that can be made on a sheet of paper under tension, before it breaks.
A page that exceeds the dimensions of a single page. It is folded to page size and included in the book, sometimes bound in and sometimes tipped in pasted. Refers to the uniformity or lack of it in the distribution of the fibers when manufacturing paper; can be observed by looking through the sheet; a good formation is uniform or "Close", while a poor formation is not. In lithography, a solution of water, a natural or synthetic gum and other chemicals used to dampen the plate and keep non-printing areas from accepting ink.
The unit on a press that contains ink to be fed to the distributing system, and the part that feeds the fountain solution to the dampening system. The four basic colors of ink yellow, magenta, cyan, and black , which reproduce full-color photographs or art.
A paper machine developed by Louis Robert and financed by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier that produces a continuous web of paper; also the term for the section of the paper machine, which is a continuous "wire" or belt screen, through which the first removal of water occurs. The point of formation. After the job is printed and folded, a trim will be taken off all four sides to remove any reference or registration marks and give a clean edge to the pile of sheets.
In digital imaging, typically a low-resolution image positioned in a document to be replaced later with a higher resolution version of the same image. Paper made with pulp created in a kraft process that has removed the lignin. Freesheet paper has more longevity than groundwood which contains lignin. Newspaper is made with groundwood. A sheet printed on one side and folded first vertically and then horizontally to produce a four-page folder.
An independent, international, environmentally and socially oriented forest certification organization. It trains, accredits and monitors third-party certifiers around the world and works to establish international forest management standards. In printing, parallel streaks appearing across the printed sheet at same interval as gear teeth on the cylinder. Ghost images are unwanted images that reduce print value.
Mechanical ghosting develops during the delivery of the printed sheet and is traceable to on-press conditions, ink starvation, form layout, and even to the blanket itself. Chemical ghosting, which occurs during the drying process of ink on paper, is especially bothersome because the condition cannot be detected until the job has been completed. The process of applying glue to the spine of a book to be casebound, after sewing and smashing, and before trimming.
The classification given to paper due to its unique characteristics, which includes brightness, opacity, cotton content, etc…. Term used to designate that the grain of the paper is parallel to the longest measurement of a sheet of paper. The fibers are aligned parallel to the length of the sheet.
Opposite of grain long. Grain of the paper runs at the right angles to the longest dimension of the sheet. Thus a sheet of paper 17 x 22 with a basis weight of 20 lbs. A person in the graphic arts who puts together art, text, and other visuals to produce professional printed results.
An intaglio printing process in which the image area is etched below the surface of the printing plate and is transferred directly to the paper by means of pressure. The number of gray values that can be distinguished by a color separation filter-usually 2 8 or A strip of standard gray tones, ranging from white to black, placed at the side of original copy during photography to measure tonal range and contrast gamma obtained.
Paper made from pulp created in one of several processes that use virtually the whole tree. Sometimes chemical and heating process are used in the pulping. Groundwood paper retains the lignin from the trees, which causes the paper to yellow and deteriorate relatively quickly. The edge of a printed sheet at right angles to the gripper edge, which travels along a guide on the press or folder. This edge, like the gripper edge, should never be altered or mutilated between the printing and folding operations.
It is the shorter edge of the sheet. A method of using crossline marks on the offset press plate to indicate trim, centering of the sheet, centering of the plate, etc. Sometimes called a cocking roller. Located on the roll stand between the roll of paper and the dancer roll. Can be cocked to compensate for certain paper roll conditions. The side the press uses to guide the sheet to the exact side toward the operator; also known as operator or control side. Streaks, particularly in halftones, produced by uneven gumming of plates which partially desensitizes the image.
In platemaking, the process of applying a thin coating of gum to the non-printing areas of a lithographic plate. In photography, a blurred effect, resembling a halo, usually occurring in the highlight areas or around bright objects. A style of binding wherein the shelf-back and the corners are bound in a different material from that used on the sides. An engraved glass through which continuous tone copy is photographed and reduced to a series of dots for halftone printing.
The reprographic technique that simulates continuous tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size or in spacing, thus generating a gradient-like effect. Paper that has been treated with a large amount of size to increase its resistance to moisture. Slack-sized is the opposite. A small strip of silk or cotton used for decoration at the top of a book between the sheets and the cover.
In hand binding, a real tape to which the signatures are sewn. On a paper machine, the box that dispenses the appropriate amount of furnish pulp into the papermaking process. An imposition which requires that pages be laid out with the top of a page head positioned across the top of the page head opposite it on the form.
An imposition which requires that pages be laid out with the top of a page head positioned across the from the bottom tail of the page opposite on the form. In offset, spots or imperfections in the printed image traceable to such things as dirt on the press, dried ink skin, paper particles, dust, etc…. A paper normally book paper specifically manufactured to retain a thickness not found in papers of the same basis weight.
Frequently used to give thickness to a book with minimal amount of pages. In photography, describes a reproduction in which the difference in darkness between neighboring areas is greater than in the original. A term referring to a paper that has a smooth, hard finish applied through calendering or other processes.
The lightest or whitest parts in a photograph represented in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or the absence of all dots. The flexible joint where the covers of a hardbound book meet the spine, permitting the covers to open without breaking the spine of the book or breaking the signatures apart.
A term referring to papers that retain much of the resinous ink components on the surface of the sheet rather than absorbing them into a fiber network. Papers with too much holdout cause problems with setoff. Moisture condition of the air. Relative humidity is the percent of moisture relative to the actual amount which air at any given temperature can retain without precipitation.
A papermaking process that involves beating the pulp so as to increase its ability to hold water and produce a paper with the proper moisture content. In digital imaging, an imagesetter capable of outputting a film flat with 4, 8 or more pages in imposed position. In printing, the cylinder on a printing press against which the paper picks up the impression from the inked plate in direct printing, or the blanket in offset printing. An auxiliary printing unit, usually employing rubber letterpress plates; imprints copy on top side of web and permits imprint copy to be changed while press is running at full speed.
On aluminum plates, a type of oxidation scum characterized by scattered pits that print sharp, dense dots. A metal drum, either solid or cored; a part of an inking mechanism; used to break down the ink and transfer it to the form rollers. An important printing paper quality - the ability to keep ink on top of the paper's surface. An inked image printed on paper with a high degree of ink holdout will dry by oxidation rather than absorption.
In digital printing, a plateless printing system that produces images directly on paper from digital data using streams of very fine drops of dyes which are controlled by digital signals to produce images on paper. On a printing press, the ink fountain and all the parts used to meter, transfer, break down, distribute, cool or heat, and supply the ink to the printing members.
Also called inking system. Denotes a production line of machinery, as required for the more or less complete manufacturing of a given product. Paper inserted between sheets as they come off the printing press to prevent transfer of wet ink from one to the other. Also, accessory sheets between parts in a form. The flexible hinge where the cover of a casebound book meets the spine, permitting the cover to open without breaking the spine of the book or breaking apart the signatures; also called a hinge.
Proper name for the beater on the paper machine. In the Jordan, the pulp is pulverized, causing the pulp and water to mix in a uniform manner. In color printing, the plate used as a guide for the register of other colors.
It normally contains the most detail. In artwork, an outline drawing of finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size for such elements as halftones, line sketches, etc…. A chemical pulping process that cooks down the tree to remove lignin, retaining the fibers for paper making. Free sheet papers are made in the kraft process. Paper used for labeling applications.
It may or may not have pressure sensitive adhesive backing added to the sheet. A dandy roll made for the purpose of imparting a laid finish to paper. The laid wires are affixed on top of the transverse chain wires, rather than being wove over and under them.
Term describes the finish imparted by a dandy roll which features wires parallel to its axis that impress the paper during manufacture to produce a permanent watermark. Paper that is developed by fusing one or more layers of paper together to the desired thickness and quality.
The slightly extended areas of printing surfaces in color plates, which make for easier registration of color. A register achieved by overlaying a narrow strip of the second color over the first color, at the points of joining. The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece. In platemaking, a sheet indicating the settings for a step-and-repeat machine.
The imposition form; it indicates the sequence and positioning of negatives on the flat, which corresponds to printed pages on the press sheet. Once the sheet is folded, pages will be in consecutive order. In composition, rows of dashes or dots to guide the eye across the page. Used in tabular work, programs, tables of contents, etc…. Also known as relief typographic printing, letterpress printing employs the use of type or designs cast or engraved in relief raised on a variety of surfaces which can include metal, rubber, and wood.
Opposite of intaglio printing, in letterpress printing the ink is applied to the raised printing surface. Non-printing areas or spaces are recessed. Impressions are made in various ways. On a platen press the impressions are made by pressure against a flat area of type or plate. Flat-bed cylinder press printing uses the pressure of a cylinder rolling across a flat area of type or plate to create the impression.
A rotary web press uses a plate that has been stereotyped molded into a curved form which presses against another cylinder carrying the paper. A book bound in accordance with the standards of the American Library Association, having strong endpapers , muslin-reinforced end signatures, sewing with four-cord thread, cotton flannel backlining, and covers of Caxton buckram cloth, with round corners.
Maximum number of sheets handled by operator of guillotine cutting machine or by paper handler loading paper for printing. The degree to which a paper or printed piece will resist a change in color when exposed to light. The "glue" that binds the cells of the tree and creates its structure. This product is removed in the kraft process. Approximately one third of the tree is lignin. A drawing containing no grays or middle tones.
In general, any drawing that can be reproduced without the use of halftone techniques. The material which is pasted down on the backbone spine of a book to be casebound, after it has been sewn, glued off, and then rounded. It reinforces the glue and helps hold signatures together.
The allowance for overlap of one-half of the open side edge of a folded section, needed for sewn and saddlestitch binding, for feeding the sections; also called lap. An ink-receptive image on the lithographic press plate; the design or drawing on stone or a metal plate. A generic term for any printing process in which the image area and the nonimage area exist on the same plane plate and are separated by chemical repulsion. Achieved by arranging the design on the dandy roll to leave a watermark at a predetermined place on the sheet.
A mark or symbol created for an individual, company, or product that translates the impression of the body it is representing into a graphic image. An ink that has good flow on ink rollers of a press. If the ink is too long, it breaks up into filaments on the press, and causes flying as on a newspaper press. A popular style of binding, in which the spine binding material is not glued to the binding edge of the sheets. Refers to papers somewhat thinner than the usual papers of the same weight, having a smooth surface, and which is a "thin" sheet.
Symbol in the paper industry designating 1, Usually used to designate 1, sheets or two reams of fine paper. Establishes the grain direction, which is always parallel with the travel of the paper over the wire. Process of drying paper on the paper machine as opposed to air drying the paper after removal from the machine.
Finish that is obtained while the paper is on the paper machine. Expressed as M. Different finishes are obtained by the number of times paper is passed through the rollers, either dry or wet. Hue of a subtractive primary and a 4-color process ink. It reflects or transmits blue and red light and absorbs green light.
In printing presses, all work done prior to running; adjusting the feeder, grippers, side guide, putting ink in the fountain, etc. Also, in letterpress, the building up of the press form, so that the heavy and light areas print with the correct impression. Making orders for special sizes, colors and weights of paper are subject to small minimums. The unprinted area around the edges of a page.
The margins as designated in book specifications refer to the remaining margins after the book has been trimmed. In color separation photography, an intermediate photographic negative or positive used in color correction. In offset lithography, opaque material used to protect open or selected areas of a printing plate during exposure.
In papermaking, groundwood pulp produced by mechanically grinding logs or wood chips. It is used mainly for newsprint and as an ingredient of base stock for lower grade publication papers. Paper which is brand-named by the manufacturer as opposed to the merchant house, which is known as a "private brand". Wastepaper generated from offices, such as letters, memos, invoices, etc.
This is the major source of post consumer fiber used in recycled papers. Geometric pattern caused when two screened images are superimposed at certain angles. Occurs when making a halftone from a halftone image. Refers to the amount of moisture found in a sheet of paper. This figure varies from sheet to sheet since paper will emit or absorb moisture according to the condition of the surrounding atmosphere.
Moisture loss is realized in the form of shrinkage, which begins at the edges of the paper and moves across the grain causing the sheet to tighten and curl. Device that measures the bursting strength of paper. Sometimes referred to as the pop test or pop tester. In photography, film containing an image in which the values of the original are reversed so that the dark areas in the subject appear light on the film and vice versa.
Offset papers manufactured with a pH of 6. Neutral pH factors are built into paper as a minimum value, to increase stability and improve permanence for use in printing of archival records. Refers to the basis weight of the paper. Proofs made by photomechanical or digital means in less time and at lower cost than press proofs. See set-off. In printing, the process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate. Short for offset lithography.
The most common form of lithographic printing in which the image area and the nonimage area exist on the same plane plate , separated by chemical repulsion. To print, the ink is "offset" transferred from the plate onto a rubber blanket and then to the paper. Process of printing utilizing a lithographic plate on which the images or designs are ink receptive while the remainder of the plate is water receptive.
Ink is transferred from the plate to a rubber blanket on the printing press and this rubber blanket transfers the image to paper. It is sometimes referred to as offset lithography or photo-offset. The amount of "show through" in a sheet from one side to the other.
The higher the opacity the less likely that the printing on one side will be visible from the other side. The more opaque a sheet of paper is, the less transparent it is. High opacity in printing papers is a good characteristic as print from the other side of a printed leaf has less "show-through". Optical brighteners or fluorescent dyes are extensively used to make high, bright blue-white papers.
They absorb invisible ultraviolet light and convert to visible light, falling into the blue to violet portion of the spectrum, which is then reflected back to our eyes. A dye that is added to the fiber stock or applied to the paper surface at the size press to enhance its brightness.
Paper rolls that are not suitable for the web offset press because they are not perfectly round and will cause uneven feeding tension. Refers to paper that has been trimmed improperly thus causing the corners to be less or more than 90 degrees. This leads to difficulty during the printing process and often results in misregister of the printed piece. Also called off-square. Describes printing when too much ink has been used, resulting in heavy print that tends to blur toward the back of the press sheet.
Packing the plate or blanket to a level that is excessively above the level of the cylinder bearer. Quantity of paper that is manufactured beyond the quantity specified. In printing, copies printed in excess of the specified quantity.
A chemical reaction which hardens the ink vehicle and makes the film of ink reasonably rub-proof. The process of combining with oxygen. In printing presses, the paper or other material used to underlay a press blanket or plate, to bring the surface to the desired height; the method of adjusting squeeze pressure. In stripping, assembly of all elements to make up a page. In digital imaging, the electronic assembly of page elements to compose a complete page with all elements in place on a video display terminal and on film or plate.
A wooden platform with stringers wide enough to allow a fork lift to drive into it and lift; used to pack cartons for shipment, if specified by the customer. Pallets are usually not reusable. Measure of the printability of a sheet of paper which is dependent upon the amount of ink the paper absorbs, the smoothness of its surface, and the evenness of its caliper.
A paper used for greeting cards, stationery, etc…which is distinctive from regular stock in that special watermarks and embossing may be used. Pasted grades are those grades of paper or paperboard made up of layers pasted together. The process is machine operation used to combine sheets of the same or different papers into a single thickness. Those inks that set-up faster and dry faster, usually from top to bottom.
These inks are used when sheets have to be sent back through the press faster than normal drying time will allow. Printing with four half-tone images at different screen angles using four different colors. Usually the four colors would have a color slant or cast towards a selected tone or color; for example a sepia-tone or overall brown slant or cast.
Today it is usually referred to as cotton fiber paper. It is made from cotton cuttings and linters. Pile of paper is ream marked by the insertion of small slips of paper or "ream markers" at intervals of every sheets. Scrap paper collected for remanufacturing into recycled paper. Printing waste and envelope trip are also recovered fiber. This means the product can be recycled.
This applies to most paper even if it is coated, waxed or other wise treated. Paper made at least in part from recovered fibers. There is no universally acceptable definition so requirements vary by specific circumstances. EPA requires post consumer content in recycled papers purchased by federal agencies.
But the FTC does not require post-consumer content in papers labeled recycled. In Canada most companies use the terra-choice definition for recycle which does require minimum levels of post-consumer fiber.
In printing inks, varnishes, solvents, oily or greasy compounds used to reduce the consistency for printing. In photography, chemicals used to reduce the density of negative or positive images or the size of halftone dots dot etching. In photography, illustrative copy that is viewed and must be photographed by light reflected from its surface.
Examples are photographs, drawings, etc…. In printing, register is the placement of two or more images on the same paper in such a manner as to make them in perfect alignment with each other. When a printing job is in exact register succeeding forms or colors can be printed in the correct position relative to the images already printed on the sheet. Mark placed on a form to assist in proper positioning of after-printing operations. Two short lines at right angles are called an angle mark. Also, bulls-eye marks placed on camera-ready copy to assist in registration of subsequent operations.
Alignment of one element of a form in relation to another. Also, alignment of printed images upon the same sheet of paper. The amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere expressed as a percentage of the maximum that could be present at the same temperature. The ability to keep photo film and the images thereon in proper register.
Repeatability is usually measured in micrometers. In lithography, a term denoting that the ink does not adhere to the metal ink rollers on a press. Printing press in which the plate is wrapped around a cylinder. There are two types, direct and indirect. Direct presses print with a plate cylinder and an impression cylinder. Indirect rotary presses sheet-fed offset presses combine a plate cylinder, a blanket cylinder and an impression cylinder.
Intaglio process. The image is below the surface of the plate. Letterhead image is raised the offset image is flat. Not the same as printability. Binding process for pamphlets or booklets, which works by stapling through the middle fold of the sheets saddle wire. The process and the resulting line or crease mechanically impressed in the paper to facilitate folding while guarding against cracking of paper and board.
Scoring is essential when heavyweight papers are to be folded. The ruling used to determine the dots per unit area in developing tonal values in the printed piece. Screens from which letterpress halftones of photographs are made range from 60 lines-per-inch for printing on newsprint to lines for printing on coated paper and premium uncoated paper.
Offset halftones for printing on most surfaces range from lines to lines. In color reproduction, angles at which the halftone screens are placed with relation to one another, to avoid undesirable moire patterns. This printing process uses a screen of fine-mesh silk thus the common name silk screen printing taughtly stretched across a frame. A squeegee drawn across the screen forces ink through the open image areas which are cut-out by hand using lacquered tissue prior to its adherence to the silk.
Special photographic negatives are adhered to the screen when faithful reproduction of intricate designs are sought. The density difference between the highlight and shadow areas of copy that a halftone screen can reproduce without a flash exposure. A halftone film having a uniform dot size over its area, and rated by its approximate printing dot size value, such as 20 percent, 50 percent, etc.
See rub-off, The disrupted appearance of an ink film as a result of abrasion to either the wet or dry ink film. A term referring to the press plate picking up ink in the nonprinting areas for a variety of reasons, basically due to spots or areas not remaining desensitized.
Term often applied to cut size sheets which are packaged "ream sealed", sheets to the package. Process of allowing paper to adjust to atmospheric conditions of the plant in which it will be used. A cover for mechanical binding that is a single piece scored and slotted or punched for combining with the mechanical binding device, formatting a closed backbone on bound units.
In platemaking, the distance from the front edge of the press plate to the image area, to allow for clamping to the cylinder and also for the gripper margin. The undesirable transfer of ink from freshly printed sheets of paper to another. Also called off-set. A sheet drawn in Plate Prep on the Craftsman table from computer specifications; used as a master for the layout and positioning of pages on the job for which it was drawn. A popular style of bookbinding; in which the signatures are gathered in sequence and then sewn individually in 8s, 16s, or 32s.
The sewing threads are visible at the center of each signature. Strips of reinforcing cloth sewn to the spine of the book sections and extending slightly past the edge of the spine; used to strengthen the binding of a casebound book. To decrease in color strength, as when halftone dots become smaller; opposite of dot spread or dot gain. Term which may be applied to a single sheet, a grade of paper, or a description of paper, i. Directly related to poor surface strength in that if the sheet has poor surface strength, delamination will occur in the printing process.
Sheet delamination could also create a problem of a blanket smash. If the delamination is large enough and thick enough, as the press continues to run, it will create a depression in the blanket, so that when the delamination buildup is removed from the blanket the depression will remain, rendering the blanket unusable. These defects pertain to both sheet-fed and web-fed equipment. In paper manufacture, rotary unit over which the web of paper passes to be cut into sheets.
In printing, rotary knife at the delivery end of web press that slices press lengths. To print one side of a sheet of paper with one plate, then turn the sheet over and print the other side with another plate using same gripper and opposite side guide.
Undercooked wood particles that are removed from the pulp before manufacture of paper begins. Sometimes shives will appear as imperfections in the finished sheets. In printing, the undesirable condition in which the printing on the reverse side of a sheet can be seen through the sheet under normal lighting conditions. Decrease in the dimensions of a sheet of paper or loss incurred in weight between the amount of pulp used and paper produced.
On sheet-fed presses, a guide on the feed board to position the sheet sideways as it feeds into the front guides before entering the impression cylinder. A method of binding in which the folded signatures or cut sheets are stitched with wire along and through the side, close to the gutter margin. Pages cannot be fully opened to a flat position; also called side wire. Additive substances applied to the paper either internally through the beater or as a coating that improves printing qualities and resistance to liquids.
Commonly used sizes are starch and latex. Also used to ship materials, usually in cartons which have been strapped banded to the skid. Placing pieces of paper between folded sections prior to trimming four sides, to separate completed books.
A combination dot gain and slur indicator supplied in positive or negative form. It is a quality control device that shows at a glance dot gain or dot loss. It also demonstrates whether the gain or the loss occurs in contacting, platemaking, proofing or on the press. An area of a blanket that is no longer firm and resilient, and that gives a light impression in the center of a well printed area. Usually caused by physical damage of the blanket at impression. The binding operation following sewing in which the folded and sewn sheets are compressed to tighten the fold free of air to make the front and back of the sheets the same thickness.
A press condition in which the impression is slurred and unclear, because too much ink was used or sheets were handled or rubbed before the ink was dry. Prior to reaching the driers, the paper web is smoothed, if necessary, by two rolls working together. The flatness of a sheet of paper, which generally determines the crispness of the image printed upon it.
A method of fastening side-by-side signatures so that each is linked with thread to its neighbor, as well as saddlesewn through its own centerfold. Smyth-sewn books open flat. The stitching is on the back of the fold. A camera term describing halation or fringe around the edge of a dot which is excessive and almost equals the area of the dot itself.
In composition, type set without space leading between the lines. Spec'd copy gives details of items such as paper, bindery techniques, type, etc. Paper or board that is manufactured, or subsequently converted, for a specific use. These grades usually cannot be used for anything other than their intended special purpose.
The designer or printing production worker who determines the types of paper to be used under various circumstances. Sophisticated instrument that measures color across a visible spectrum and produces data describing the color of a given sample in terms of the three parameters in color space. The complete range of colors in the rainbow, from short wavelengths blue to long wavelengths red. Smallest visible point that can be displayed or printed. The smallest diameter of light that a scanner can detect, or an image-setter or printer can image.
Dot should not be confused with spot. Press varnish applied to a portion of the sheet, as opposed to an overall application of the varnish. Fine opaquing such as in removing pinholes or other small transparent defects in a negative; also called Opaquing. A term used to describe paper that has been seasoned so that the moisture content is the same as the air surrounding it. Pressing a design onto a book cover using metal foil, colored foil, or ink, applied with metal dies.
Terms used to indicate the manufactured specifications of a paper. Includes color, basis weight, sheet dimensions, and grain direction. An electrical charge frequently found in paper which is too dry or which has been affected by local atmospheric conditions. In printing presses , an attachment designed to remove the static electricity from the paper to avoid ink setoff and trouble with feeding the paper. In multiple imposition on a lithographic press plate, the procedure of repeating the exposure of a flat by stepping it along the gripper edge; side-by-side exposure.
In multiple imposition on a lithographic press plate, the procedure of repeating the exposure of a flat by stepping it back from the gripper edge of the plate; up-and-down exposure. A popular method of sewing the signatures of a book together by stitching all the sheets at one time, either through the center of the inserted sheets or side-stitched from front to back. A very strong style of binding but not flexible as compared with sewing.
A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots microns of equal size and variable spacing. Second order screened images have variable size dots and variable spacing. Also called Frequency Modulated FM screening. General term with many meanings. Papers manufactured in popular sizes, weights, colors, etc. Paper distributor that stocks in his own warehouse facilities enough paper to immediately fill anticipated orders in the market.
This eliminates the delay of ordering from the paper manufacturer, taking delivery, and delivering to the customer. An application of opaque to photographic negatives; also the application of special lacquer to protect areas in positives in dot etching; staging of halftone plates during relief etching; protecting certain areas of deep-etched plates so that no ink will be deposited on the protected areas.
A type of press feeder that keeps several sheets of paper, overlapping each other, moving toward the grippers. Stretch properties are essential for paper to fold well and to resist stress in use. Apsley Paper Trail charity. Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 19 February Oregon Local News. Archived from the original on 25 December The Guardian. ISSN Environmental Quality Management. Water Science and Technology. PMID Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 13 April Japan Paper Association.
Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 24 February Agroforestry dehesa Analog forestry Bamboo forestry Close to nature forestry Community forestry Ecoforestry Energy forestry Mycoforestry Permaforestry Plantation forestry Social forestry Sustainable forestry Urban forestry. Coppicing Forest farming Forest gardening Logging Manufacturing lumber plywood pulp and paper sawmilling Products biochar biomass charcoal non-timber palm oil rayon rubber tanbark Rail transport Tree farm Christmas trees Wood engineered fuel mahogany spruce-pine-fir teak Woodworking.
WikiProject Category Outline. Battle of Talas Missal of Silos. Category Commons. Major industries. Natural sector. Industrial sector. Service sector. Information sector. Creative Language Research and development Basic research. Category Commons Outline. Lists of countries by industrial output rankings. CO 2 per capita Greenhouse gas per capita. List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country. Authority control. Integrated Authority File Germany.
France data United States Japan. Microsoft Academic. Categories : Pulp and paper industry Lists of countries by economic indicator Industries economics. Namespaces Article Talk.