Motion Sensor : A device that is sensitive to the movement especially used for security reasons and navigation aid. It was the sensor device of the study. This was used in research to be the signal converter of sensor data to SMS signals. In the study it is the connection technology between the sensory device and mobile device used in system development.
Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next. What is Scribd? Chapter 1 For Thesis Arduino Final. Uploaded by Crash Zerocool. Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: Chapter 1 for Thesis Arduino Final. Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next.
Jump to Page. Search inside document. Home and business industrys security issues become a major concerns since everyone in home or industry wants to protect their investments from any form of destruction or loss. On the input phase, ideas and concepts can be acquired from the internet, books and related researches that can contribute greatly in the making of this research.
Furthermore, the needed information and appropriate materials follows. Christine Halili. Rey Del Castillo Luar Jr. LeLouch Vi Brittania. Jacques Owokel. Rodel D Dosano. Ayel Cejas Costiniano. Kristian Fetalsana. Kunal Juneja.
Ralph Celeste. Manish Yadav. Setso Said-So Maakwe. Bhoomil Kalyani. Nandagopal Sivakumar. Alok Khatri. Hossam El-din Sayed Ahmed. Sagar Matekar. Aswathi Sruthi. Ben Benji. More From Crash Zerocool. Crash Zerocool. Ako Si Jhadong. A survey of domestic and commercial intruder alarm systems was completed across the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The gathered data were evaluated against Australian Standard AS Security technicians are tested, and if they pass are awarded a licence, in part, against their knowledge and understanding of AS The combination of the Western Australian Security Act and Australian Standard AS provide what could be considered the most robust control of the intruder alarm installers sector within Australia.
The Australian Standard AS Nevertheless, a signifi cant proportion of the intruder alarms measured did not comply with AS These items contravene sections of the Australian Standard AS Further to these fi ndings, the study made a number of conclusions in an attempt to understand why such a level of non-compliance was found. Conclusions included a lack of industry-focused vocational training and education, limited industry self-regulation and supervision, restricted licensing regime, inappropriate legislation and not having a single federal approach to such matters.
In addition, the introduction of a new performance based AS standard may further decrease the ability to measure such non-compliance. However, no single aspect could be considered ineffective; rather, it is argued that all of these areas need to be addressed to significantly reduce the level of systemic non-compliance of intruder alarms systems.
The pulse tone generator provides one with the application of two timers, resistors, electrolytic capacitors and a power source, all being connected together on a Vero board. This project attempted to incorporate into previously This project attempted to incorporate into previously developed pulse tone generator useful features such as making the circuit simpler, variation to the tone by means of a knob. A lighter weight plastic case is used as against metallic casings used in some previous works.
This sound will stay on for as long as the circuit is connected to the dc power supply. The component and circuits was tested and the design was realized. Moving Object Detection and Recognition system. Intrusion Detection Systems in the Protection of Assets. The chapter critiques Intrusion Detection Systems IDS as applied in the domestic and commercial environments in the protection of assets, with Defence in Depth providing an underlying strategy.
IDS is the integration of technology and IDS is the integration of technology and processes, with taxonomies of sensing detectors and applied levels of environmental security. Therefore, the chapter raises issues in the efficacy and application of IDS. Efficacy issues include the degree of deterrence provided and the ability to detect intrusion. Application issues include the Electronic Security sector itself, regulatory regimes, quality of installation and the false alarm rates.
These, amongst others, are factors that affect the efficacy of IDS. To conclude, the future of these systems and further research that could improve our understanding of IDS is presented. Related Topics. Electrical Electronic. Follow Following. Mobile apps. Climate Change impact assessment on long-term water availability at catchment level. PHP websites development.
GPS Vehicle Tracking. The Internet of Things. Medical Alert System. Ads help cover our server costs. Remember me on this computer.
|Thesis title about door alarm||This suggests we cannot conclude with confidence that they confer greater than no security. For economy of space the enlarged capital bold letters in the previous list will denote the respective security device in the remainder of the article. However, of burgled households On average, protection conferred against burglary is three times that of attempts, although this is skewed by the SPF of six devices against burglary Table 4last row. British Journal of Criminology 51 2 : — This is consistent essay for 15 aug situational crime prevention which is a key operational component of environmental criminology see Cornish and Clarke, for the definitive statement of the 25 techniques of situational crime prevention.|
|Various resume examples||Hough, M. Carousel Next. With these act, an attempt for theft is immediately discouraged. Ralph Celeste. In total, 31 individual devices and configurations example resume statistician odds ratios that are statistically significant for either type of burglary. Generally speaking, protection increases with the number of devices, as evidenced by the different maximum ordinal scale values of Figures 123.|
|Empathic order in essay writing||Further to these fi ndings, the study made a number of conclusions in an attempt to understand why such a level of non-compliance was found. Security technicians are tested, and if they pass are awarded a licence, in part, against their knowledge and understanding of AS Policy Paper. Kunal Juneja. To conclude, the future of these systems and further research that could improve our understanding of IDS is presented.|
|Pay for my earth science dissertation methodology||Security Camera: Cameras are placed in a discrete manner at an important location. Burglar Alarm 4, Followers. From a narrow viewpoint of burglary security, households, landlords and crime and safety partnerships should not even contemplate installing five devices since such configurations are less effective against burglary with entry than the above triplets and quadruplets. The superscript notation shows that these odds ratios are highly statistically significant. Google Scholar Tilley, N.|
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Net Version 2. It's up to you guys what languages to use. I hope this post will help you find the best title for your thesis proposal. Tags list of thesis title list of thesis title for IT student. I need a system, but not that common. I'm from batangas city. Need Help Sir,i need help in makingmy online hotel reservation.
RDBMS ano po yung easy na system para sa rdbms? Anu pla objectives na thesis Anu pla objectives na thesis na e2. Need help!!! System Analysis and Design Sir or mam pwede po ba humingi ng tulong kung anu dapat na magandang title pra sa SAD namin pra maka gawa kami ng proposal para sa thesis namin.
Hi po pwede po ba patulong… Hi po pwede po ba patulong ng Tittle sa thesis po IT po ako.. SAD sir I have the honor to have an opportunity to ask some topics because some of our ideas were already made by others pls contact me or add me in this email [email protected]. IT We really need a title for our defense please could you help us. Kahit anong sikap to have a better title Wala pa rin po. I'm shan, a 4th year IT student.
I find it hard to think of an exotic not so common system that would be benefited by many. May you gave us some suggestions sir? We only have 2 weeks before our proposal hearing I'm willing to help you I'm willing to help you regarding your Thesis.
It's better to talk it in person. Where are you from? Thesis title problem Patulong nman po! Im CS student. Suggestion lang po ng 3 thesis title ung hindi common! It consists of a d. It controls power flow to the buzzer. It can be used as a bugler alarm. It can be used as an intruder alarm. It can be modify for use as a tap door bell. It is used to protect a door when it is on; it sounds an alarm when the door is touched. The door alarm system is an electronic system because it consists of two or more circuit units of different functions working together to achieve a desired performance or goal.
Discrete semi-conductors devices were in its realization. Hence, it is an electronic device. Contact door alarm system: In the contact door alarm system, the alarm sounds only when there is a physical contact with the door. It sounds an alarm whenever someone comes in front of the door. It is usually called front door guard or tamper proof door alarm system. For the purpose of this project work, the contact type door alarm system was chosen. The d. This being the most convenient and economical d.
The domestic a. The conversion off the alternating voltage from the a. For this project, the v-ac input will be transformed to 9v-ac level. This is done in the project by the four diodes bridge rectifier. The filtered dc voltage from the capacitor is what is fed directly to the internal electronic circuitry. The reason is that the human body is a mass of salt and water, which are conductive materials. Hence, the triggering of the door alarm alarm is based on the human body being a conductor.
In other words, it is based on the conductive nature of the human body. FIG 2. C pin 2 to earth through the human body. The extended cable is usually hidden in the installation of the door alarm. This generated pulse is what drives the switching circuit attached to its output.
The monostable multivibrator unit is implemented using a timer I. The few external components connected to it are used to adjust the pulse duration. That is the time at which the output of the timer I.
Multivibrator is an electronic circuit that produces square waveforms, triangular waveforms, rectangular waveforms and pulses. There are three forms of the multivibrator circuits namely: i. Astable Multivibrators ii. Monostable Multivibrators iii. Bistable Multivibrators For the purpose of the project circuit, the monostable multivibrator was used. The monostable multivibrator has only one stable state and one quasi semi stable state. It can be switched to the quasi stable state by an external trigger pulse but it returns to the stable condition after a time delay determined by the value of R1 and C2.
It supplies a single output pulse of a desired duration for every input trigger pulse. The monostable multivibrator unit is shown below: FIG 2. This signal is said to be negative going decreasing from maximum supply voltage to zero voltage-ground potential. The monostable multivibrator is triggered by this input signal and output at pin 3 goes high a voltage close to or equal to the supply voltage for a time period determined by R1 and C2.
The resistor R2 is a pull up resistor. It keeps the pin 2 high when the touch point is not touched so that output pin 3 will be low. The transistors are referred to as switching transistors due to the speed with which they can switch from one voltage level to the other. In general, switching transistors are so arranged in a circuit so that either maximum current called saturation collector current flows through the load or minimum current called collector leakage current flows through the load.
In other words a switching transistor has two statuses namely, 1. ON state or when collector current flows through the load. OFF state or when collector leakage current flows through the load. The output of q2 is fed to the ser gate through the resistor R7. The gate resistor R3 is a base biasing resistor to transistor Q1R3 also performs the function of matching the impedance of Q1 which is a bipolar junction transistor to the output of the timer IC.
Bipolar junction transistors have low input impedance, while the output impedance of the timer IC is relatively higher. Resistor R4 is the collector resistor of transistor Q1. R6 is the collector of Q2. R5 is a base biasing resistor of Q2. The essence of biasing a transistor is to ensure proper operation of the transistor in any circuit. The collector resistor is to achieve voltage drop across the transistor collector or output.
It has some special functions which would be treated later. The function of this unit is to control the flow of current to the alarm sounder unit. It connects and disconnects the alarm sounder to and from the supply lines. It also provides isolation of the load device the buzzer in this case from the electronic circuitry.
The SCR connects the buzzer to the supply voltage when it is conducting. Conduction of the SCR occurs when a small voltage is applied to its gate. The load power control unit is shown below: FIG. The SCR turns off when the supply voltage is reduced to zero.
It consists of a piezo buzzer. The buzzer has the ability of producing sound signal when electric current flows into it. In other words, it acts as a transducer which converts electrical signal to sound signal. The buzzer sounds an alarm when the SCR is conducting. At this condition, it is connected across the supply lines. This is illustrated by the diagram below: FIG 2. Silicon Controlled Rectifier. Piezo buzzer. Its function in the power supply unit is to lower the V ac from the PHCN supply mains to 9V ac, which is a level compatible to the circuitry connected to its secondary terminal.
It also provides isolation of the mains from the semi-conductor circuitry. A transformer is a static or stationary piece of apparatus by means of which electric power in one circuit is transformed into electric power of the same frequency in another circuit. It can raise or lower the voltage in a circuit but with a corresponding decrease or increase in current.
Every transformer is built with at least two coils. One is the primary coil and one is the secondary coil. The primary coil is called the input. This means that it brings electrical power into the transformer. The secondary coil is called the output. It carries electrical power out of the transformer. These coils are wound a laminated iron core. The essence of the core lamination is to prevent power loss through eddy current.
When an alternating current flows in the primary input coil; a continually changing magnetic field is created in the iron core. This field induces an alternating voltage in the secondary coil. If the secondary coil is connected to a load, it will cause an induce voltage to flow. This is how the transformer operates to reduce the ac voltage input to 9v ac at its secondary winding.
If N2 Again for an ideal transformer. They were used in converting the ac electrical signal into dc electrical signal. A diode is a two-terminal device consisting of a P - N junction form either in germanium or silicon crystal. Its circuit symbol is shown below. A diode is polarity sensitive. The arrow head is the anode while the bar is the cathode. The diode conduct only when it is forward biased. It does not conduct when it is reversed biased.
Application of a voltage polarity that Coordinate with the direction in which the diode will pass current is called forward biasing the diode. This is shown below. It is used in the power supply unit as a filter. Also, it is used in RC network of the monostable multivibrator to adjust the pulse duration of the multivibrator to adjust the pulse duration of the multivibrator.
Capacitors are passive element Capable of storing energy. In practical, Subunit of farad is usually encountered. Basically, a capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator or dielectric. The plates may be aluminum foil while the dielectric may be air, ceramic, paper or mica. Usually, the capacitors are classified into different group based on nature of the dielectric material used for the purpose of this project.
The electrolytic capacitor and ceramic were used. Furthermore, Capacitor can be classified into fixed and variable types, polar and non-polar types. The fixed capacitor has fixed capacitance value that cannot be altered, while the variable types have capacitance that can be varied at will.
The polar capacitors have positive and negative terminals like a battery whereas the non-polar types have no negative and positive terminals like a battery. The capacitors used in the project include two polar capacitors and one non-polar type. The circuit symbol of the capacitors is given below: a b c d FIG 2. Fixed b.
Variable c. Polar d. Non-Polar The capacitor is used as a filter in the power supply unit because it has the ability of opposing any abrupt change in voltage. The capacitor is used in the RC timer network of the monostable multivibrator unit because of its ability to store energy. Thus, it is used for generating current or voltage for a short period of time. The Capacitor as a Filter: The main function of a filter circuit is to minimize the ripple content in the rectifier output. The shunt capacitor filter is used as the filter in the project circuit.
It is simply consist of a single capacitor connected in parallel across the rectifier output. The capacitor holds the charge till input ac supply to the rectifier goes negative. During the negative half-cycle, the capacitor attempt to discharge. However, it cannot discharge through diode which, been now reversed biased, is off.
Hence it discharges through RL and its voltage somewhat decreases. The charging and discharging of the capacitor makes RL sees a nearly constant dc voltage across it all times. In this project circuit, they were used in limiting the current to the base of the transistors, with the capacitor to form the monostable multivibrator delay network. They were also used to create voltage drop at the collector of the transistors. The ability of the resistor to oppose the flow of current through it is known as its resistance.
Resistor are basically divided into two main types namely; the fixed and the variable resistors. The fixed resistors have fixed resistance value set by the manufacturer and cannot be altered, while the variable resistors have resistance which can be varied between two maximum and minimum ranges. For the purpose of the project only the fixed resistors were used. The circuit symbol of the fixed and variable resistors are shown below in figure 2.
Fixed Resistor b. Variable Resistor Resistors are also classified according to the materials from which they are made. In view of this, we have the metal film, wire wounded, carbon film, carbon composition etc. The resistors used in the project circuit are the carbon composition type.
The carbon composition resistors come with different wattage rating. The higher the wattage, the bulkier it becomes in size. Resistor Colour Coding: Because of the physical size of the carbon composition resistor, printing, their resistance on their body is difficult. Hence a system of colour code is used to determine their resistance value. This colour code consist of colour band printed on the body of the resistor, these colour bands represents the value of the resistor resistance.
Usually four colour bands are printed on the resistor body as shown below. The second band represents the second digit of the resistor value. The third band represents the multiplier number of zeros , while the four band represents the tolerance. The resistor colour codes is shown in the table below. TABLE 2. The SCR is one of the prominent members of the thyristor family. It is a four layer or PNPN device.
Basically, it is a rectifier with a control element. In fact, it consists of three diodes connected back to back with a gate connection. It is widely used as a switching device in power control application. It can switch ON for variable lengths of time, thereby delivering selected amount of power to the load.
Hence, it possesses the advantages of a rheostat and a switch with none of their disadvantages. The SCR is a unidirectional device. An SCR has two states that is, either it does not conduct or it conducts heavily. There is no state in between.
Therefore, SCR behaves like a switch. There are two ways to turn on the SCR. The first method is to keep the gate open and make the supply voltage equal to the break over voltage. The second method is to operate SCR with supply voltage less than break over voltage and then turn it on by means of a small voltage typically 1.
Applying small positive to the gate is the normal way to close an SCR because the breakdown voltage is usually much greater than supply voltage. To open the SCR that is to make it non-conducting , reduce the supply voltage to zero. It is an analog — digital circuit.
The versatile timer IC can be used as an astable, monostable and bistable multivibrator. They can provide precise timing interval ranging from microseconds to hours. It comes as an 8-pin package. The timer is basically a very stable, monostable or bistable mode.
The timer is composed of 28 transistor, 12 resistor, and 3 diodes, fabricated on a single chip. This appeared complex, but the device is quite simple in its operation. The circuitry in the timer IC is arranged to form two comparators, a flip flop, two control transistors and a high current output stage, this is illustrated in the diagram below.
The output of the flip flop circuit is then brought out through an output amplifier stage. The flip flop circuit also operates a transistor inside the IC, the transistor collector usually being driven low to discharge a timing capacitor. PIN 2: This is the trigger input pin. When a negative going voltage pulse is applied to this pin, the comparator two output goes high, which in turns causes the flip flop to change state and the output level switches from LOW to HIGH.
PIN 3: This is the output pin. It is capable of sinking or sourcing a load that requires can drive TTL circuits. PIN 4: This is the reset pin. It is used to reset the flip flop that controls the state of the output pin 3. The pin is activated when a voltage level of between 0 and 0. The reset pin will force the output to go low no matter what state the other inputs to the flip flop are in. PIN 5: This is control voltage input. It is possible to vary the timing of the device independently of the external timing network.
It frequently modulates the output if not in use; it is recommended installing a small capacitor from pin 5 to ground to avoid possible false erratic triggering from noise effects. PIN 6: This is the threshold pin. It is used to reset the flip flop and cause the output to go low. The action is level sensitive and can move slowly similar to the trigger voltage.
PIN 7: This is the discharge pin. This pin is an open collector output which is in phase with the main output on pin 3 and has similar current sinking capability. Capacitor C charges toward Vcc through resistor RA. During the charges interval, the output remains high. The discharge transistor also goes low, causing the capacitor to remain at near 0v until triggered again. The input trigger signal and the resulting output waveform for the timer Operated as a one shot is shown below.
Time period for this circuit can range from micro seconds to many seconds. In other words, the does not perform amplification purpose but just as a switches. The term transistor refers to a wide variety of gain- producing from silicon or possibly, germanium but there their similarity ends. There are two forms of transistors.
The BJT is a gain producing device.
What are the materials needed to develop the project? What are the testing procedures to be done after the development of the project? Away mode: the system assumes that you are out of house and will therefore enable the sensors. To the home owners, this project will help keep their properties secured and safe.
To the proponents, this project will help them in applying their knowledge in software development Lastly to the future researchers, it will served as reference material if they would conduct similar study. Figure 1 Figure1 shows the progress of the study, it shows the necessary methods that were taken into consideration. On the input phase, ideas and concepts can be acquired from the internet, books and related researches that can contribute greatly in the making.
Thereafter, planning and designing the construction of the project comes next. The process includes programming and encoding. Lastly, testing and evaluation of the results will be conducted. The scope of the study is to design a Security system with SMS verification that detected from intruders, trespassers, criminals or any form of criminal act. The system is consists of motion sensors and microcontrollers such as Arduino and with SMS verification to home owner and to the government authorities PNP.
Only the authorized personnel can activate the system. The system was only limited on detecting door opening, smoke, heat, fire and gas. Everyone will pass through the sensor will consider as intruders once the system is activated. Definition of Terms The following terms are used conceptually and operationally for better understanding of the study.
Arduino : Is a hardware and software company, projects and user community that designs and. PIR-Sensor : Passive Infrared sensor is an Electronic sensor that measures infrared, a light radiating from objects in its field of view. Microcontroller : A compact microcomputer designed to govern the operation of embedded systems in motor vehicles, robots, office machines, complex medical devices, mobile radio transceivers, vending machines, home appliances and various device.
In this study it was the central control of the sensor device the system. Motion Sensor : A device that is sensitive to the movement especially used for security reasons and navigation aid. It was the sensor device of the study. This was used in research to be the signal converter of sensor data to SMS signals.
In the study it is the connection technology between the sensory device and mobile device used in system development. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next.
What is Scribd? Chapter 1 For Thesis Arduino Final. Uploaded by Crash Zerocool. Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: Chapter 1 for Thesis Arduino Final. Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Home and business industrys security issues become a major concerns since everyone in home or industry wants to protect their investments from any form of destruction or loss.
On the input phase, ideas and concepts can be acquired from the internet, books and related researches that can contribute greatly in the making of this research. Furthermore, the needed information and appropriate materials follows.
Christine Halili. They are calculated as follows: In the second row of figures of Table 2 , households with window and door locks have an odds ratio with respect to burglary with entry of 0. This SPF implies that window and door locks confer 12 times higher protection against burglary with entry than no security. Another way of expressing this is that window and door locks reduce the odds ratio of burglary with entry down to one-twelfth compared with no security. This is considerable compared with previous evidence on car security SPFs that did not exceed 25 Farrell et al, It appears, however, modest in relation to other burglary security configurations as will be seen in the following paragraphs.
The discussion here uses both interpretations interchangeably. The SPFs of the individual devices and configurations with at least one statistically significant odds ratios from Table 2 , as mentioned, are shown across three graphs, Figures 1 , 2 , 3. They are listed in descending order of the SPFs against burglary with entry values that is in general more responsive to security than attempted burglary as found in previous research Van Kesteren et al, An SPF of 1 implies that the odds ratios of no security and the examined device or configuration are equal and therefore the latter confers no protection.
SPFs lower than 1 imply that the respective device or configuration is counter-productive: the odds of burglary are actually lower without any security than the device examined. Therefore the following discussion and related graphs of SPFs use 1 rather than 0 as baseline the value of the y-axis at which the x-axis intersects which best reflects the protection conferred by each burglary device configuration. It remains relatively common to use a single type of security device, as shown by the sample sizes in Table 2.
As expected, the SPFs for individual devices tend to be lower than those for combinations in Table 3. For visual clarity the SPFs of individual burglary security devices across crime type are also given in Figure 1. When devices are used individually, window locks have the highest SPF followed by indoor sensor lights, but neither has statistically significant odds ratios and for this reason their respective SPFs are shown in solid white bars.
This suggests we cannot conclude with confidence that they confer greater than no security. Given that the Home Office classifies window locks together with door locks as basic security, the fact that on their own they do not confer statistically significant protection comes as a surprise. The reasons for this remain uncertain and further research might clarify that issue. Perhaps window locks fall quickly into disuse if they are add-on rather than built-in, as may be more likely in older households with less security generally.
Perhaps integrated built-in window locks work automatically when a window is closed whereas add-on locks typically require the fitting of a nut onto a bolt, producing significant variation in usage between window locks perhaps particular in summer months when windows are opened more frequently. Future analysis on modus operandi in burglary incidents recorded by the CSEW will shed some light on this.
In addition, window locks are an essential built-in feature of double-glazed windows and therefore their widespread availability see Table 1 has possibly more to do with heat insulation and less with burglary security. Indeed Table 2 shows that they are available to burgled households at the same rate as in the general population. Similarly, indoor lights on sensor and window bars have statistically non-significant odds ratios for burglary with entry and attempted burglary solid white bars in Figure 1 , respectively.
This might be partially because of the low number of households using indoor lights 47 or 0. It is evident from Figure 1 that individual devices are much more effective against burglary with entry than attempts which is an anticipated and welcome result. Of the statistically significant results, external lights or door locks confer the highest protection SPFs of 3 and 2. Previous research, some based on offender interviews, has indeed identified high visibility by overlooking occupied properties or passers-by as a main burglary deterrent Coupe and Blake, ; Coupe and Hahn, Door locks increase the effort and time needed for breaking into a property and thus the risk of the potential burglar being interrupted by passers-by or neighbours Chenery and Pease, Security chains are roughly twice better than no security while CCTV, dummy alarm and window bars confer some protection against burglary with entry but none for attempts.
Burglar alarms and dummy alarms appear to increase risk of attempted burglary. The SPFs of dummy alarm for attempts and burglar alarm for any type of burglary are less than 1 implying a counter-productive effect: having just a burglar alarm and no other form of security confers less protection than no security at all. This is counter-intuitive but not without some plausible explanations. In addition, as with the window locks discussed earlier it requires some action on the part of the householder to become functional against burglary.
Another plausible explanation is that burglar alarms were fitted to homes that had been burgled before the CSEW reference period and therefore the respective households are repeat burglary victims, although the data cannot confirm this. There is ample research evidence that victims have a higher risk of a subsequent repeat burglary and that policies that prevent repeat burglary reduce the overall burglary rates Pease, ; Grove et al, Therefore the repeat victimisation risk may counterbalance the potential protection conferred by the burglar alarm.
It is also possible that respondents to the CSEW may misinterpret false alarms as attempted burglary. However, dummy alarms also do not offer any active protection and so their protective effect against burglary with entry is hard to explain. One possibility is that burglars believe a silent alarm, and perhaps a personnel response, has been triggered if there is no audible alarm. These results suggest that a range of issues exists for future research including the role of modus operandi of burglars and the attributes of households and residential areas.
Generally speaking, protection increases with the number of devices, as evidenced by the different maximum ordinal scale values of Figures 1 , 2 , 3. The SPFs of pairs and triplets of security devices are given in Figure 2. As mentioned, the exact SPF values can be found in Table 3 second and fourth column.
These results suggest that triples are more effective than pairs. The exception is the pairing of external lights and window locks EW which, for burglary, is more effective than the IWD triplet indoor lights, window locks and door locks. Examining, first, pairs of security devices burglar alarm and door locks BD confer no protection for attempted burglary but nearly half the risk of burglary with entry compared with no security. This is a considerable effect which, compared with the SPFs of pairs of car crime prevention devices calculated by Farrell et al , suggests that burglary is much more responsive to target hardening than car crime.
The remaining three pairs that incorporate window locks, that is, together with external lights EW , security chains WS or burglar alarm WB confer statistically significant protection only against burglary with entry with respective SPFs at roughly 18, 13 and 5. Finally external lights and security chains ES have a small protective effect against attempts.
Considering now the configurations of three security devices, that is, triplets, in Figure 2 , it is clear that they generally confer double the protection provided by pairs. As perhaps anticipated, the highest roughly 34 and 14 SPFs for completed and attempted burglary, respectively is offered by external lights, window and door locks EWD.
Their protection factor against attempts is 8, non-significant and 25, respectively. The magnitude of the protection against burglary conferred by triples is considerably greater than that against attempts. For the three triplets conferring greatest protection against burglary, they confer more than double the protection against attempts. However, the combination of indoor lights, window and door locks IWD is one out of two the second such configuration discussed in the next paragraph that confers more protection against attempts than burglary with entry.
Figure 3 presents the SPFs of combinations of four or more security devices with significant odds ratios. The SPFs with regard to burglary with entry are discussed in this and the next two paragraphs. The respective bar has been truncated in Figure 3 to allow the effects of the remaining configurations better to be appreciated.
The second most surprising finding shown in Figure 3 and in comparison with Figure 2 is that burglary protection does not consistently increase with the number of devices that make up each configuration. The second and third highest SPFs against burglary after the above-mentioned outlier effect are, perhaps surprisingly, delivered by the combination of only four security devices out of the seven examined.
It confers 52 times more protection against burglary compared with no security. The other refers to lights external and indoor and locks for windows and doors EIWD that confers similar protection by a factor of Window and door locks, security chains and external lights EWSD confer protection by a factor of Finally, households reporting the combination of all devices except security chains CEIWBD are protected against burglaries 34 times than those having no security.
Turning now our attention to attempts in Figure 3 , the highest protection is conferred by EIWSD which is the second burglary devices configuration to affect attempts more than burglary with entry. EIWD and EWSD are the third and fourth most protective configuration against attempts while the second and fifth place are held by triplets: IWD, mentioned earlier for its higher effectiveness against attempted than completed burglary, and EWD. One question one may ask is whether the SPFs of burglary security combinations are a straightforward extrapolation of the SPFs of the individual devices that make up each configuration.
The answer is that they are not. For example, the impact of car security configurations against theft of car is greater than the expected from the individual contributions of the devices that make up each combination Farrell et al, The sum of the two individual impact factors is the expected protection from their combination, WD, and equals 9. This exceeds the expected impact by 3. The third and fifth columns of Table 3 give the NIEs of security configurations against burglary with entry and attempts, respectively.
Two points are worth mentioning here. First, the number of devices is not the main driver in burglary prevention. It is rather the effectiveness of a particular combination. Protection against burglary and attempts does not consistently increase with the number of devices that make up each configuration.
This is evidenced in Table 4 that shows the mean SPF protection across the different number of burglary devices per combination in descending order with respect to burglary with entry. Protection increases greatly from two to three devices against both burglary and attempts. The mean level of protection conferred against burglary by three devices is, however, almost as high as that of four or five devices. Against burglary, the SPF means of four and five devices are almost identical.
The protection conferred against burglary is always greater than that against attempts, irrespective of the number of devices, as shown in the final column as the ratio of the SPF of burglary to that of attempts.
On average, protection conferred against burglary is three times that of attempts, although this is skewed by the SPF of six devices against burglary Table 4 , last row. If six-device combinations are excluded, the mean SPF conferred against burglary is double that against attempts. More precisely gauging the marginal effect of devices added to particular combinations may be an area for further research.
This study was motivated by mounting evidence that security improvements have played a significant role in the unprecedented long-term decline in volume crime generally, and household burglary in particular, in many industrialised countries Van Dijk et al, This is, to our knowledge, the first work to examine the protective effects of all individual burglary security devices for which data are available in the CSEW and their possible configurations.
Previous research on burglary security examined wide groups or the presence of a device while ignoring any complementary or combinatory effects produced by the co-presence of one or more other device. This work complements the previous literature, by distinguishing the individual protection effects across a large number of devices and their combinations. In addition, the SIAT methodology offers a novel approach to examining the specific effects of different combinations of security devices, both individually and in combination.
Longitudinal analysis using the SIAT methodology may be a possibility for future research. Individual and combined security devices prevent burglaries with entry more than attempts except for the triplet combination of indoor lights, window and door locks IWD and the addition to this of external lights and security chains EIWSD , which has the converse effect.
Individual security devices confer up to three times greater protection against burglary with entry than no security. However, a burglar alarm B or a dummy alarm for attempts without the presence of any other device is counter-productive increasing the odds ratios of burglary.
Combinations of security devices in general afford up to roughly 50 times more protection than no security. The protection conferred against burglary, however, does not consistently increase with the number of devices that make up the configurations. What advice should be given to householders themselves or to those, such as landlords or crime reduction partnerships, attempting to reduce the burglary risks to vulnerable third parties?
From a strictly practical perspective, the research reported here suggests if only one security device is installed then fitting external lights on a sensor E seems to provide greatest protection against any burglary. If a further device is included, adding window locks to external lights EW is suggested in relation to burglary with entry.
The Home Office defined basic security, that is, window and door locks WD , produces second best results against burglary with entry but confers additional protection against attempted burglary. Window and door locks together with external lights or security chains EWD or WSD seem the ultimate choice for balancing out number of devices and protection effectiveness: they confer more security than most combinations of four or more devices. Indeed these combinations of just three out of the seven examined devices confer, respectively, the fourth and eighth highest protection effect against burglary with entry among all 31 significant combinations see Figures 2 and 3 and Table 3.
If more devices can be afforded, however, the highest total protection ignoring the outlier effect of six devices mentioned in the previous section can be gained by CCTV, window and door locks and security chains CWSD or lights and locks EIWD that is the cheapest and safer option given the high cost of CCTV and potential fire hazard posed by security chains. From a narrow viewpoint of burglary security, households, landlords and crime and safety partnerships should not even contemplate installing five devices since such configurations are less effective against burglary with entry than the above triplets and quadruplets.
Footnote 7 Therefore there are economies of scale in the number of security devices installed to prevent burglary with diminishing returns after two. The protective value added by a second or third device is up to six — or two-fold than a single device or a pair, respectively. In some instances adding a fourth or fifth device reduces the overall effectiveness of the combination resulting thus in dis-economies of scale.
Forthcoming changes to security standards for housing should take this into account. In terms of cost-effectiveness, further research into the cost of security relative to the cost of burglary is required. A best guess, based simply on the number of devices and impact, would be that there is preliminary prima facie evidence that window and door locks together with external lights or security chains may be the most cost effective.
High-level security is incorporated in Secured By Design SBD planning and building recommendations that are effective in reducing burglary for example, Armitage and Monchuk, Burglary security devices are only one element of SBD, however. Athe current results may inform SBD it is not further discussed here. If so please refer back to this list. A small number of cases which make up: 0.
For the purposes of this analysis, security device availability was measured at the time of interview for non-victims and at the time of the first incident for victims. Of the nine, four respondents first experienced an attempted victimisation and two burglaries with entry. With regard to the remaining three cases, both incidents happened in the same month.
Therefore, we were unable to ascertain which incident happened first. As a result, and because they constitute a small proportion of the total sample, cases where a respondent experienced both an attempt and a burglary with entry are excluded from this analysis. The significance is based on the P -values of the z -score for testing the hypothesis that the proportions of security availability differs between burgled households and the entire fleet under the assumption of identical, that is, no security effect, but unknown population proportion.
Unless the aim is to reduce attempted burglaries at the expense of completed ones since the highest protection against the former crime type is conferred by EIWSD. Armitage, R. Security Journal 24 4 : — Article Google Scholar. Budd, T. London: Home Office. Chenery, S. Applied Criminology Associates. April Cohen, L.
American Sociological Review 44 4 : — Cornish, D. In: M. Cornish eds. Theory for Practice in Situational Crime Prevention. Google Scholar. Coupe, T. Criminology 44 2 : — Coupe, R. Cromwell, P. In: P. Cromwell ed. In their own Words: Criminals on Crime, 5th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Policy Paper. Farrell, G. Flatley, J. Grove, L. Stockholm, Sweden: BRA. Hales, J. London: National Centre for Social Research.
Hough, M. Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. New York: Criminal Justice Press. Jansson, K. Jeffrey, C. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage. Mayhew, P. Home Office Research Study No. London: HMSO.
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