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Children are naturally curious—they want to know "how" and "why. In this minilesson, students organize the information they have compiled through the research process by using sentence strips. Students first walk through the process using information on Beluga whales as a model. Students match facts written on sentence strips to one of four categories: appearance, behavior, habitat, and food. Sentence strips are color-coded to match each category. The sequence of notes sentence strips under each category are case studies page in an indented outline form, and regrouped so that similar facts are placed together.

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Phd thesis publishers

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With GRIN, it is very easy to make course material and scripts available to your students permanently - as an e-book and a printed book. Over , specialised publications, directly from universities - Find out more about the latest research and academic work in your area with GRIN. At GRIN, you can publish your final assignment for free. It is easy, quick and free of costs. Share your knowledge and make money off of it.

Link zur Seite. GRIN offers you a wide and high-quality selection of academic publications. Find out more about our selection process and our quality standards! That's why you should publish your doctoral thesis at GRIN. Your knowledge pays off. Publish doctoral thesis free of charge and earn money At GRIN you publish your doctoral thesis completely free of charge and even receive a high author's fee on every sale.

Attractive discount on author copies. Order your book at a discounted price! Over 20 years of publishing experience. Publish to the Professional for Scientific Publishing! Publish for free worldwide Publish quickly and benefit permanently.

Your e-book and book with your own ISBN. How it works: Upload a text and publish your own book. Sign up and upload your text Select a royalty option We create your e-book and book for free Distribution Your royalty. Select a royalty option At GRIN, you can, either, profit from every sold unit, receive a guaranteed one-time royalty, or offer your work for free.

We create your e-book and book Our editorial team creates a complete e-book and a book from the file you uploaded. Worldwide distribution Not only do we publish your work in our own shop - there is also a world wide network of distributors with over online shops.

Receive a high author's royalty Lean back and make money: If you choose one of our royalty options, you profit from every sold unit. Successful authors - satisfied customers:. The ideal solution to easily publish his texts from simple text to dissertation. It can't be easier! It is unbelievable how easy it is to publish your own texts with GRIN and also to make money. Publishing opportunity and publication network in one?

GRIN: A good chance to get known! GRIN creates a high-quality, broad and easily accessible knowledge spectrum. The editors and staff are always at our side with advice and deeds. Thank you, GRIN for the uncomplicated partnership. As an author, it was a big step for me to put my works in foreign hands — with Grin I did not regret this step. The publication is quick, easy and the results are of high quality, I am highly satisfied and have become a repeat offender.

FAQ — The most important questions and answers. How much does it cost to publish on GRIN? Publishing on GRIN is completely free. Is GRIN a real publisher? One of the reviewers summarized my argument back to me in a way that made me see the significance of my findings from a new perspective. I ended up adapting that article into the first body chapter of my book, and it shaped the rest of the manuscript as well. Think of it as a lower-stakes trial run for having your full book manuscript reviewed.

Just remember to give the dissertation, and yourself, a much-needed and much-deserved break first. Laura Portwood-Stacer earned a Ph. She is a developmental editor for academic authors and is currently working on her second book, a how-to guide on scholarly book proposals. Expand comments Hide comments. View the discussion thread. We have retired comments and introduced Letters to the Editor. Share your thoughts ».

Advertise About Contact Subscribe. Coronavirus Live Updates - July 20, Career Advice. Topics Books and Publishing. Give It a Rest. By Laura Portwood-Stacer. August 6, Bio Laura Portwood-Stacer earned a Ph. Read more by Laura Portwood-Stacer. Inside Higher Ed Careers Hiring? Post A Job Today! You may also be interested in Opinions on Inside Higher Ed.

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SpringerTheses Springer Springer Theses. Springer Theses celebrates five years of success Springer Theses, a book series comprising a selection of the very best PhD theses from around the world, celebrates five years and a total of published books. The series gives young scientists experience in writing and publishing a book with an established international publisher and helps them gain recognition for their research early on in their careers.

Internationally top-ranked universities, including Cambridge, Stanford, Oxford and Tsinghua University, nominate their best theses examined during the last 12 months from the fields of chemistry, physics, earth sciences, engineering and materials science. Nominated and endorsed by recognized specialists, each thesis is chosen for its scientific excellence and wide impact. Video: Introducing Springer Theses.

Browse highlight Springer Theses titles We offer a free preview for each book, so take a look Inside! Chemistry highlights. ISBN Immediate eBook download after purchase. This title is also available as an eBook. After the purchase you can directly download the eBook file or read it online. Via MySpringer you can always re-download your eBooks. Usually ready to be dispatched within 3 to 5 business days, if in stock.

Hardcover version. Softcover also known as softback version. More Information. Physics highlights. Astronomy highlights. Earth Sciences Highlight. Engineering highlight. If you have any questions, the team will contact the author directly.

After the examination, the texts appear first as an e-book, the print edition follows a little later. With GRIN, it is very easy to make course material and scripts available to your students permanently - as an e-book and a printed book. Over , specialised publications, directly from universities - Find out more about the latest research and academic work in your area with GRIN.

At GRIN, you can publish your final assignment for free. It is easy, quick and free of costs. Share your knowledge and make money off of it. Link zur Seite. GRIN offers you a wide and high-quality selection of academic publications. Find out more about our selection process and our quality standards!

That's why you should publish your doctoral thesis at GRIN. Your knowledge pays off. Publish doctoral thesis free of charge and earn money At GRIN you publish your doctoral thesis completely free of charge and even receive a high author's fee on every sale. Attractive discount on author copies. Order your book at a discounted price! Over 20 years of publishing experience.

Publish to the Professional for Scientific Publishing! Publish for free worldwide Publish quickly and benefit permanently. Your e-book and book with your own ISBN. How it works: Upload a text and publish your own book. Sign up and upload your text Select a royalty option We create your e-book and book for free Distribution Your royalty. Select a royalty option At GRIN, you can, either, profit from every sold unit, receive a guaranteed one-time royalty, or offer your work for free.

We create your e-book and book Our editorial team creates a complete e-book and a book from the file you uploaded. Worldwide distribution Not only do we publish your work in our own shop - there is also a world wide network of distributors with over online shops. Receive a high author's royalty Lean back and make money: If you choose one of our royalty options, you profit from every sold unit. Successful authors - satisfied customers:.

The ideal solution to easily publish his texts from simple text to dissertation. It can't be easier! It is unbelievable how easy it is to publish your own texts with GRIN and also to make money. Publishing opportunity and publication network in one? GRIN: A good chance to get known! GRIN creates a high-quality, broad and easily accessible knowledge spectrum.

The editors and staff are always at our side with advice and deeds. Thank you, GRIN for the uncomplicated partnership. As an author, it was a big step for me to put my works in foreign hands — with Grin I did not regret this step. The publication is quick, easy and the results are of high quality, I am highly satisfied and have become a repeat offender.

FAQ — The most important questions and answers. How much does it cost to publish on GRIN?

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D by dissertation, which typically requires a minimum of two publications, but which also requires traditional thesis elements such as an introductory exegesis, and linking chapters between papers. Examiners are nominated by the candidate's university, and their identities are often not revealed to the candidate until the examination is complete. A formal oral defence is generally not part of the examination of the thesis, largely because of the distances that would need to be travelled by the overseas examiners; however, since , some there is a trend toward implementing this in many Australian universities.

At the University of South Australia, PhD candidates who started after January now undertake an oral defence via an online conference with two examiners. Admission to a doctoral programme at a Canadian university usually requires completion of a Master's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven research ability.

In some cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours Bachelor's degree to a PhD program; other programs allow a student to fast-track to a doctoral program after one year of outstanding work in a Master's program without having to complete the Master's. An application package typically includes a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a writing sample or Graduate Record Examinations scores.

A common criterion for prospective PhD students is the comprehensive or qualifying examination, a process that often commences in the second year of a graduate program. Generally, successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in the graduate program. Formats for this examination include oral examination by the student's faculty committee or a separate qualifying committee , or written tests designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area see below or both.

At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination for example the Test of English as a Foreign Language. Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate some English language ability.

While some students work outside the university or at student jobs within the university , in some programs students are advised or must agree not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities e. At some Canadian universities, most PhD students receive an award equivalent to part or all of the tuition amount for the first four years this is sometimes called a tuition deferral or tuition waiver. Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs.

Some programs may require all PhD candidates to teach, which may be done under the supervision of their supervisor or regular faculty. In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework and the comprehensive examinations. At this stage, the student is known as a "PhD student" or "doctoral student.

Furthermore, it is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams. Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known as a "PhD candidate.

The final requirement is an oral defense of the thesis, which is open to the public in some, but not all, universities. At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a PhD degree typically ranges from four to six years. It is, however, not uncommon for students to be unable to complete all the requirements within six years, particularly given that funding packages often support students for only two to four years; many departments will allow program extensions at the discretion of the thesis supervisor or department chair.

Alternative arrangements exist whereby a student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form. The general rule is that graduate students are obligated to pay tuition until the initial thesis submission has been received by the thesis office.

In other words, if a PhD student defers or delays the initial submission of their thesis they remain obligated to pay fees until such time that the thesis has been received in good standing. However, it could also be applied for a direct doctorate in specific cases, according to the jury's recommendations on the thesis proposal. Most of postgraduate students in Colombia must finance their tuition fees by means of teaching assistant seats or research works.

Some institutions such as Colciencias , Colfuturo, CeiBA, and Icetex grant scholarships or provide awards in the form of forgivable loans. After two or two and a half years, it is expected that the research work of the doctoral candidate be submitted in the form of oral qualification, where suggestions and corrections about the research hypothesis and methodology, as well as on the course of the research work, are performed.

The PhD degree is only received after a successful defense of the candidate's thesis is performed four or five years after the enrollment , most of the time also requiring the most important results having been published in at least one peer-reviewed high-impact international journal. In Finland, the degree of filosofian tohtori abbreviated FT is awarded by traditional universities, such as University of Helsinki.

A Master's degree is required, and the doctorate combines approximately 4—5 years of research amounting to 3—5 scientific articles, some of which must be first-author and 60 ECTS points of studies. The licentiate filosofian lisensiaatti or FL requires only 2—3 years of research and is sometimes done before an FT.

After , only one type of doctoral degree remained, called "doctorate" Doctorat. The latter is equivalent to the PhD. Students pursuing the PhD degree must first complete a master's degree program, which takes two years after graduation with a bachelor's degree five years in total.

A PhD candidate can follow some in-service training offered by the graduate school while continuing their research in a laboratory. Their research may be carried out in a laboratory, at a university, or in a company. In the last case, the company hires the candidate and they are supervised by both the company's tutor and a lab's professor. The validation of the PhD degree requires generally 3 to 4 years after the master's degree.

The most common procedure is a short-term employment contract called doctoral contract: the institution of higher education is the employer and the PhD candidate the employee. However, the candidate can apply for funds from a company, which can host them at its premises as in the case where PhD candidates do their research at a company.

In another possible situation, the company and the institute can sign a funding agreement together so that the candidate still has a public doctoral contract but is works at the company on a daily basis for example, this is particularly the case for the French Scientific Cooperation Foundation. In Germany , admission to a doctoral program is generally on the basis of having an advanced degree i.

A candidate must also find a tenured professor from a university to serve as the formal advisor and supervisor Betreuer of the dissertation throughout the doctoral program. The formal admission is the beginning of the so-called Promotionsverfahren , while the final granting of the degree is called Promotion. The duration of the doctorate depends on the field. A doctorate in medicine may take less than a full-time year to complete; those in other fields, two to six years.

Most doctorates are awarded with specific Latin designations for the field of research except for engineering, where the designation is German , instead of a general name for all fields such as the Ph. The most important degrees are:. Over fifty such designations exist, many of them rare or no longer in use.

As a title, the degree is commonly written in front of the name in abbreviated form, e. Max Mustermann or Dr. Max Mustermann , dropping the designation entirely. However, leaving out the designation is only allowed when the doctorate degree is not an honorary doctorate, which must be indicated by Dr.

While most German doctorates are considered equivalent to the PhD, an exception is the medical doctorate, where "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study. The European Research Council decided in that those doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree.

Depending on the university, doctoral students Doktoranden can be required to attend formal classes or lectures, some of them also including exams or other scientific assignments, in order to get one or more certificates of qualification Qualifikationsnachweise. Depending on the doctoral regulations Promotionsordnung of the university and sometimes on the status of the doctoral student, such certificates may not be required.

Usually, former students, research assistants or lecturers from the same university, may be spared from attending extra classes. Instead, under the tutelage of a single professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct independent research. In addition to doctoral studies, many doctoral candidates work as teaching assistants, research assistants, or lecturers. Many universities have established research-intensive Graduiertenkollegs "graduate colleges" , which are graduate schools that provide funding for doctoral studies.

The typical duration of a doctoral program can depend heavily on the subject and area of research. Usually, three to five years of full-time research work are required. The average time to graduation is 4. In , the median age of new PhD graduates was In India, generally, a master's degree is required to gain admission to a doctoral program. In some subjects, doing a Masters in Philosophy M. In the last few years, there have been many changes in the rules relating to a PhD in India.

According to the new rules described by UGC, universities must have to conduct entrance exams in general ability and the selected subject. After successful completion of the coursework, the students are required to give presentations of the research proposal plan of work or synopsis at the beginning, submit progress reports, give a pre-submission presentation and finally defend the thesis in an open defence viva-voce.

The Dottorato di ricerca research doctorate , abbreviated to "Dott. Doctorate courses are open, without age or citizenship limits, to all those who already hold a " laurea magistrale " master degree or similar academic title awarded abroad which has been recognised as equivalent to an Italian degree by the Committee responsible for the entrance examinations. The number of places on offer each year and details of the entrance examinations are set out in the examination announcement.

A doctoral degree Pol. Commonly, students with a master's degree or equivalent are accepted to a doctoral entrance exam. The title of PhD is awarded to a scientist who has completed a minimum of three years of PhD studies Pol. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, by a supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.

The doctorate was introduced in Sweden in and in Denmark-Norway in and awarded in theology, law, and medicine, while the magister's degree was the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy, equivalent to the doctorate. Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a degree known as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model.

Denmark and Norway both introduced the Dr. Phil os. These degrees, however, became comparable to the German Habilitation rather than the doctorate, as Scandinavian countries did not have a separate Habilitation. The degrees were uncommon and not a prerequisite for employment as a professor; rather, they were seen as distinctions similar to the British higher doctorates DLitt , DSc. Denmark introduced an American-style PhD, the ph. Today, the Norwegian PhD degree is awarded to candidates who have completed a supervised doctoral programme at an institution, [88] while candidates with a master's degree who have conducted research on their own may submit their work for a Dr.

In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at Uppsala University 's Faculty of Philosophy in In Sweden, the Latin term is officially translated into Swedish filosofie doktor and commonly abbreviated fil. The degree represents the traditional Faculty of Philosophy and encompasses subjects from biology, physics, and chemistry, to languages, history, and social sciences, being the highest degree in these disciplines.

Sweden currently has two research-level degrees, the Licentiate's degree, which is comparable to the Danish degree formerly known as the Licentiate's degree and now as the ph. Some universities in Sweden also use the term teknologie doktor for doctorates awarded by institutes of technology for doctorates in engineering or natural science related subjects such as materials science, molecular biology, computer science etc.

The Swedish term fil. Denmark and Norway. All doctoral programs are of a research nature. The studies should include original results and can take a maximum of three years, although this period can be extended under certain circumstances to 5 years. The student must write their thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to science. If approved by her or his "thesis director or directors ," the study will be presented to a panel of distinguished scholars.

Any doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on their research. If approved, they will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory, Pass, Satisfactory, and Excellent. The social standing of doctors in Spain was evidenced by the fact that Philip III let PhD holders to take seat and cover their heads during an act in the University of Salamanca in which the King took part so as to recognise their merits.

This right to cover their heads in the presence of the King is traditionally reserved in Spain to Grandees and Dukes. The concession is remembered in solemn ceremonies held by the University by telling Doctors to take seat and cover their heads as a reminder of that royal leave.

PhD is awarded in recognition of a substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, origination of new directions and visions in science. A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine. Universities admit applicants to PhD programs on a case-by-case basis; depending on the university, admission is typically conditional on the prospective student having completed an undergraduate degree with at least upper second-class honours or a postgraduate master's degree but requirements can vary.

In the case of the University of Oxford , for example, "The one essential condition of being accepted … is evidence of previous academic excellence, and of future potential. Oxford abbreviate their Doctor of Philosophy degree as "DPhil", while most use the abbreviation "PhD"; but these are stylistic conventions, and the degrees are in all other respects equivalent.

This is typically done after one or two years and the research work done may count towards the PhD degree. If a student fails to make satisfactory progress, they may be offered the opportunity to write up and submit for an MPhil degree,e. In many universities, the MPhil is also offered as a stand-alone research degree.

In the United Kingdom, funding for PhD students is sometimes provided by government-funded Research Councils or the European Social Fund , usually in the form of a tax-free bursary which consists of tuition fees together with a stipend. Higher fees are often charged for laboratory-based degrees. Research Council funding is distributed to Doctoral Training Partnerships and Centres for Doctoral Training, who are responsible for student selection, within the eligibility guidelines established by the Research Councils.

Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake the degree part-time, thus reducing the tuition fees. There is usually a preliminary assessment to remain in the program and the thesis is submitted at the end of a three- to four-year program. These periods are usually extended pro rata for part-time students. With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but this is rare.

Since the early s, British funding councils have adopted a policy of penalising departments where large proportions of students fail to submit their theses in four years after achieving PhD-student status or pro rata equivalent by reducing the number of funded places in subsequent years. Furthermore, supervising staff are encouraged in their career progression to ensure that the PhD students under their supervision finalise the projects in three rather than the four years that the program is permitted to cover.

These issues contribute to an overall discrepancy between supervisors and PhD candidates in the priority they assign to the quality and impact of the research contained in a PhD project, the former favouring quick PhD projects over several students and the latter favouring a larger scope for their own ambitious project, training, and impact.

There has recently been an increase in the number of Integrated PhD programs available, such as at the University of Southampton. These courses include a Master of Research MRes in the first year, which consists of a taught component as well as laboratory rotation projects. The PhD must then be completed within the next 3 years. As this includes the MRes all deadlines and timeframes are brought forward to encourage completion of both MRes and PhD within 4 years from commencement.

These programs are designed to provide students with a greater range of skills than a standard PhD, and for the university, they are a means of gaining an extra years' fees from public sources. In the United Kingdom, PhD degrees are distinct from other doctorates, most notably the higher doctorates such as DLitt Doctor of Letters or DSc Doctor of Science , which may be granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted and usually published research.

However, some UK universities still maintain the option of submitting a thesis for the award of a higher doctorate. Recent years have seen the introduction of professional doctorates, which are the same level as PhDs but more specific in their field.

A more generic degree also used is DProf or ProfD. These typically have a more formal taught component consisting of smaller research projects, as well as a 40,—60,word thesis component, which together are officially considered equivalent to a PhD degree.

In the United States, the PhD degree is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most fields of study. There are universities in the United States that award the PhD degree, and those universities vary widely in their criteria for admission, as well as the rigor of their academic programs. US students typically undergo a series of three phases in the course of their work toward the PhD degree.

The first phase consists of coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to complete. This often is followed by a preliminary , a comprehensive examination, or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge.

The student is often later required to pass oral and written examinations in the field of specialization within the discipline, and here, depth is emphasized. Some PhD programs require the candidate to successfully complete requirements in pedagogy taking courses on higher-level teaching and teaching undergraduate courses or applied science e.

Another two to eight years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation , which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to pages. In many cases, depending on the discipline, a dissertation consists of a comprehensive literature review, an outline of methodology, and several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis.

Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by their supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline. Typically, PhD programs require applicants to have a bachelor's degree in a relevant field and, in many cases in the humanities, a master's degree , reasonably high grades, several letters of recommendation, relevant academic coursework, a cogent statement of interest in the field of study, and satisfactory performance on a graduate-level exam specified by the respective program e.

Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a PhD program usually takes four to eight years of study after the Bachelor's Degree ; those students who begin a PhD program with a master's degree may complete their PhD degree a year or two sooner. The median age of PhD recipients in the US is 32 years.

In , US universities awarded 8, PhD diplomas; 20, in ; 31, in ; 32, in ; 42, in ; 48, in , [] and 55, in PhD students at US universities typically receive a tuition waiver and some form of annual stipend. Graduate schools increasingly [ citation needed ] encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisers' research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.

Many Ivy League and other well-endowed universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree program if it is short or for most of it. According to "Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other European countries, [] " in countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees like Russian Federation, some post-Soviet states, Germany, Poland, Austria and Switzerland , should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree, and in countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this PhD degree.

Since most education systems only have one advanced research qualification granting doctoral degrees or equivalent qualifications ISCED , [] par. On 19 June , for the first time in the Russian Federation, defenses were held for the PhD degree awarded by universities, instead of the Candidate of Sciences degree awarded by the State Supreme Certification Commission.

Petersburg State University: co-chairs of the program — N. Kuznetsov, G. Leonov, P. At some universities, there may be training for those wishing to supervise PhD studies. There is now a lot of literature published for academics who wish to do this, such as Delamont, Atkinson, and Parry Indeed, Dinham and Scott have argued that the worldwide growth in research students has been matched by increase in a number of what they term "how-to" texts for both students and supervisors, citing examples such as Pugh and Phillips These authors report empirical data on the benefits that a PhD candidate may gain if they publish work; students are more likely to do this with adequate encouragement from their supervisors.

Wisker has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision: The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the PhD process. These two models were first distinguished by Acker, Hill and Black ; cited in Wisker, The number of PhD graduates has grown substantially in many countries since , [] PhD Graduates still represent a relatively small, elite group within most countries — around 1.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities in many countries. For other uses, see PHD disambiguation. Main article: List of doctoral degrees awarded by country. See also: Education in Argentina. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

See also: Education in Germany. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. See also: Doctorates in the United Kingdom. Main article: Graduate science education in the United States. The examples and perspective in this article or section might have an extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards one or more specific regions. Please improve this article or discuss the issue on the talk page.

Belgium French-speaking : Doctorat dr. India: Doctorate Indonesia: Doktor Dr. The Economist. Retrieved 23 August ISSN Journal of Further and Higher Education. S2CID European Universities Association. Retrieved 28 August Academic Genealogy of Mathematicians.

World Scientific. ISBN Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 January In Brian Harrison ed. The History of the University of Oxford: The twentieth century. Clarendon Press. Very few persons had received even an honorary DLitt by when the Reverend E. Walker, Senior Tutor of Queen's , proposed, as the Oxford Magazine put it, that the University 'should divert the stream' of American aspirants to the German universities' degree of philosophiae doctor by opening the DLitt to persons offering a suitable dissertation nine terms after graduation.

Retrieved 26 April University of Oxford. Studies in Higher Education. The first universities: Studium generale and the origins of university education in Europe. Cambridge University Press. A history of the university in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages. The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages.

Redefining the Doctorate PDF. Steven Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences. JSTOR The American Economic Review. The Journal of Higher Education. UK Council for Graduate Education. Open University Press. Singer and S. German influences on education in the United States to Journal of Higher Education. Transaction Publishers. Geiger , "Research, graduate education, and the ecology of American universities: An interpretive history.

Goodchild and Harold S. Weschler, eds. Veysey, The emergence of the American university is the standard history; see pp — Golladay; Susan T. Hill October Doctorates in the 20th Century. National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 February The academic revolution ch 1. These doctoral degrees, however, are sometimes identified in English as PhD degrees. Wageningen University. Express Tribune. This process enabled us to see how some findings from the mud map might fall under multiple themes, which suggested a satisfactory repetition was emerging.

You know you have a thesis on your hands when you feel like you are saying the same thing over and over, but in a slightly different way every time. This is a stylistic choice — there is no right or wrong way to do it, but the diagram lets you imagine different results and discuss the implications of the various choices. We took several photos as this diagram evolved and changed to present different options.

At this point I was happy. I know I can work from a spider diagram, but Wendy was still not comfortable. She is a more creative person than me and was worried that she would muck around and just find more and more connections — a fair point. So I suggested we try using a matrix.

While a spider diagram encourages you to see connections, a matrix forces you to think about hierarchy. The snowflake method is a technique used by novel writers. It involves making a simple outline, which becomes more and more complex as the writing develops. We started by drawing a table like this:. The last column is a list of subheads. Each of these subheads will have words — a page of text. To further develop the snowflake, Wendy will write at least four points under each subhead, to make paragraph headings.

With a little manipulation these paragraph headings become topic sentences for each paragraph. From a huge mess of ideas the writing task now looks much simpler — just a matter of picking off the paragraph you want to tackle and writing — words. Of course, in practice writing is not that easy, but this process does help you see the wood instead of the trees. How about you? Got any tips on the discussion chapter?

Have you used any methods like the ones outlined here? What works well for you? How do I start my discussion chapter? Love the Thesis whisperer and want it to continue? I think grounded theory is one of the most mis-used terms in research, ever.

The practical tools you describe are great, however the theoretical aspects could use a bit more attention. The processes of coding and classifying concepts using grounded theory is a whole world in itself and would be worthy of an entire post at some point. I was lost in my discussion chapter for a long time before digging myself out of the hole — this would have been a godsend. I shall keep it in mind for future supervisions.

Thanks for this, Inger. I found myself quite stuck for some time on the discussion chapter, and then it took many iterations before I was making confident knowledge claims. O What a beautiful thing. I enjoy reading your articles you guys create very nice content I am also a content writer but you are the best in a millions thank you from.

Your explanation is great but the images would help me gain a better insight. Thank you so much Inger! Thanks for your patience. Just about to write my Discussion Chapter — this post has provided some wonderful hints on approach to ordering my thoughts and then constructing my chapter.

I am wondering why I could not see the pics from the screen shots. I am using my laptop to read this blog. Thank you for the tips and strategy for developing my discussion chapter. I hope to have them all restored eventually. April 20, September 24, After about another 45 minutes of fiddling and arguing about it, we had this provisional list of four themes: We took a couple of photos of the board with my phone and then rubbed it all out.

Step four: use a spider diagram to make connections explicit This is where we diverted from How to write a better thesis and brought in my favourite thinking tool, the spider diagram. We put the overall aim of the thesis in the middle of the bubble and put the emergent themes in the first layer of bubbles around it: The third layer of bubbles contained findings from our mud map recorded in the photos on my phone that we thought fell under these themes.

Step Five: Make a snowflake At this point I was happy. Related posts How do I start my discussion chapter? Like this: Like Loading Publishing during your part time PhD. PhD to… start up? Timely and awesome.

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Best definition essay ghostwriting for hire uk Cookies that are essential for the basic functioning of the website. If some time has passed since the PhD was written you will also need to ensure the book is up- to-date and considers recent publications in the field. GRIN offers you a wide and high-quality selection of academic publications. Contract and publication. July 12, The review process can take some time and varies from project to project, and can depend on the publisher and phd thesis publishers time of year.
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You might even consider using a bullet list instead of proper prose. Usually such summary contains or less for undergraduate theses , words for Masters theses and words for a doctoral dissertation. Answered by Emily Rock on 14 Nov, Results indicate that the effects of peer smoking, drinking, and fighting on corresponding respondent delinquency are attenuated in schools with strict sanction policies for these behaviors. Answered by Jhan Micho Molon on 28 Feb, Confirm that you would also like to sign up for free personalized email coaching for this stage.

Recommended Courses. Submission Process Planning to Write. Q: How can we write a summary of a thesis? Answer Follow this Question. Answer: A summary of a thesis is like an abstract of a research paper. The summary should include the following points: What is the thesis about? What is the purpose of the thesis? What were the methods used to research the information?

What are the results, conclusions, and recommendations that the thesis presents? Related reading: The basics of converting your PhD thesis into journal articles. Answered by Editage Insights on 13 Sep, Resources for authors and journals. Upvote this Answer 15 Comment.

Answer: First of all, remember that your summary is a brief introduction into an overview of your research. Upvote this Answer 5 Comment. Answer: Results indicate that the effects of peer smoking, drinking, and fighting on corresponding respondent delinquency are attenuated in schools with strict sanction policies for these behaviors. Upvote this Answer Comment. Similar developments occurred in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century, many European countries e.

Until the midth century, advanced degrees were not a criterion for professorships at most colleges. That began to change as the more ambitious scholars at major schools went to Germany for 1 to 3 years to obtain a PhD in the sciences or humanities. Major shifts toward graduate education were foretold by the opening of Clark University in which offered only graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins University which focused on its PhD program.

By the s, Harvard, Columbia, Michigan and Wisconsin were building major graduate programs, whose alumni were hired by new research universities. By , PhDs were awarded annually, most of them by six universities. It was no longer necessary to study in Germany. At the start of the 20th century, US universities were held in low regard internationally and many American students were still traveling to Europe for PhDs. The lack of centralised authority meant anyone could start a university and award PhDs.

In Germany, the national government funded the universities and the research programs of the leading professors. It was impossible for professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students. In the United States, by contrast, private universities and state universities alike were independent of the federal government. Independence was high, but funding was low.

The breakthrough came from private foundations, which began regularly supporting research in science and history; large corporations sometimes supported engineering programs. The postdoctoral fellowship was established by the Rockefeller Foundation in Meanwhile, the leading universities, in cooperation with the learned societies, set up a network of scholarly journals. After World War II, state universities across the country expanded greatly in undergraduate enrollment, and eagerly added research programs leading to masters or doctorate degrees.

Their graduate faculties had to have a suitable record of publication and research grants. Late in the 20th century, "publish or perish" became increasingly important in colleges and smaller universities. Detailed requirements for the award of a PhD degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school. It is usually required for the student to hold an Honours degree or a Master's Degree with high academic standing, in order to be considered for a PhD program.

In other countries such as the UK there is generally no such condition, though this varies by university and field. In order to submit a successful PhD admission application, copies of academic transcripts, letters of recommendation, a research proposal, and a personal statement are often required.

Most universities also invite for a special interview before admission. A candidate must submit a project, thesis, or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed context.

In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university; in other countries, the dissertation is examined by a panel of expert examiners who stipulate whether the dissertation is in principle passable and any issues that need to be addressed before the dissertation can be passed. Some universities in the non- English -speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the anglophone PhD degree for their research doctorates see the Bologna process.

A PhD student or candidate is conventionally required to study on campus under close supervision. With the popularity of distance education and e-learning technologies, some universities now accept students enrolled into a distance education part-time mode. In a " sandwich PhD" program, PhD candidates do not spend their entire study period at the same university. Instead, the PhD candidates spend the first and last periods of the program at their home universities and in between conduct research at another institution or field research.

A PhD confirmation is a preliminary presentation or lecture that a PhD candidate presents to faculty and possibly other interested members. The confirmation lecture can be seen as a trial run for the final public defense, though faculty members at this stage can still largely influence the direction of the research. At the end of the lecture, the PhD candidate can be seen as "confirmed" — faculty members give their approval and trust that the study is well directed and will with high probability result in the candidate being successful.

In the United States, this is generally called advancing to Candidacy, the confirmation event being called the Candidacy Examination. A career in academia generally requires a PhD, though, in some countries, it is possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate. In North America, professors are increasingly being required to have a PhD, and the percentage of faculty with a PhD may be used as a university ratings measure.

The motivation may also include increased salary , but in many cases, this is not the result. Research by Bernard H. Casey of the University of Warwick, U. While this is a small return to the individual or even an overall deficit when tuition and lost earnings during training are accounted for , he claims there are significant benefits to society for the extra research training.

PhD students may need to take on debt to undertake their degree. A PhD is also required in some positions outside academia, such as research jobs in major international agencies. In some cases, the Executive Directors of some types of foundations may be expected to hold a PhD [ citation needed ]. A PhD is sometimes felt to be a necessary qualification in certain areas of employment, such as in foreign policy think-tanks: U.

News wrote in that "[i]f having a master's degree at the minimum is de rigueur in Washington's foreign policy world, it is no wonder many are starting to feel that the PhD is a necessary escalation, another case of costly signaling to potential employers. The Economist published an article in citing various criticisms against the state of PhDs.

These included a prediction by economist Richard B. According to the article, only the fastest developing countries e. China or Brazil have a shortage of PhDs. The US higher education system often offers little incentive to move students through PhD programs quickly and may even provide incentive to slow them down. To counter this problem, the United States introduced the Doctor of Arts degree in with seed money from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

The aim of the Doctor of Arts degree was to shorten the time needed to complete the degree by focusing on pedagogy over research, although the Doctor of Arts still contains a significant research component. Germany is one of the few nations engaging these issues, and it has been doing so by reconceptualising PhD programs to be training for careers, outside academia, but still at high-level positions. This development can be seen in the extensive number of PhD holders, typically from the fields of law, engineering, and economics, at the very top corporate and administrative positions.

To a lesser extent, the UK research councils have tackled the issue by introducing, since , the EngD. Mark C. Taylor opined in in Nature that total reform of PhD programs in almost every field is necessary in the U. In German-speaking nations, most Eastern European nations, successor states of the former Soviet Union, most parts of Africa, Asia, and many Spanish-speaking countries, the corresponding degree to a Doctor of Philosophy is simply called "Doctor" Doktor , and the subject area is distinguished by a Latin suffix e.

Lit, D. Sc, LL. D, Doctorate or similar terms. However, it is important to note that programmes with a similar name to 'doctor' should only be included in ISCED level 8 if they satisfy the criteria described in Paragraph For international comparability purposes, the term 'doctoral or equivalent' is used to label ISCED level 8. In Argentina, the admission to a PhD program at public Argentine University requires the full completion of a Master's degree or a Licentiate degree.

Non-Argentine Master's titles are generally accepted into a PhD program when the degree comes from a recognized university. While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States OAS , have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing.

Upon completion of at least two years' research and coursework as a graduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to their specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence. This committee should be composed of examiners that are external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor, respective to the correspondent field of science that the candidate has contributed with original and rigorous research, is received after a successful defense of the candidate's dissertation.

Admission to a PhD program in Australia requires applicants to demonstrate capacity to undertake research in the proposed field of study. The standard requirement is a bachelor's degree with either first-class or upper second-class honors. It is also possible for research master's degree students to "upgrade" to PhD candidature after demonstrating sufficient progress. PhD students are sometimes offered a scholarship to study for their PhD degree.

RTPs are paid for a duration of 3 years, while a 6-month extension is usually possible upon citing delays out of the control of the student. Due to a continual increase in living costs, many PhD students are forced to live under the poverty line.

Australian citizens, permanent residents, and New Zealand citizens are not charged course fees for their PhD or research master's degree, with the exception in some universities of the student services and amenities fee SSAF which is set by each university and typically involves the largest amount allowed by the Australian government. Completion requirements vary. Most Australian PhD programs do not have a required coursework component. The credit points attached to the degree are all in the product of the research, which is usually an 80,word thesis [ citation needed ] that makes a significant new contribution to the field.

Recent pressure on higher degree by research HDR students to publish has resulted in increasing interest in Ph. D by publication as opposed to the more traditional Ph. D by dissertation, which typically requires a minimum of two publications, but which also requires traditional thesis elements such as an introductory exegesis, and linking chapters between papers.

Examiners are nominated by the candidate's university, and their identities are often not revealed to the candidate until the examination is complete. A formal oral defence is generally not part of the examination of the thesis, largely because of the distances that would need to be travelled by the overseas examiners; however, since , some there is a trend toward implementing this in many Australian universities.

At the University of South Australia, PhD candidates who started after January now undertake an oral defence via an online conference with two examiners. Admission to a doctoral programme at a Canadian university usually requires completion of a Master's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven research ability. In some cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours Bachelor's degree to a PhD program; other programs allow a student to fast-track to a doctoral program after one year of outstanding work in a Master's program without having to complete the Master's.

An application package typically includes a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a writing sample or Graduate Record Examinations scores. A common criterion for prospective PhD students is the comprehensive or qualifying examination, a process that often commences in the second year of a graduate program.

Generally, successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in the graduate program. Formats for this examination include oral examination by the student's faculty committee or a separate qualifying committee , or written tests designed to demonstrate the student's knowledge in a specialized area see below or both. At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination for example the Test of English as a Foreign Language.

Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate some English language ability. While some students work outside the university or at student jobs within the university , in some programs students are advised or must agree not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities e.

At some Canadian universities, most PhD students receive an award equivalent to part or all of the tuition amount for the first four years this is sometimes called a tuition deferral or tuition waiver. Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs. Some programs may require all PhD candidates to teach, which may be done under the supervision of their supervisor or regular faculty.

In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework and the comprehensive examinations. At this stage, the student is known as a "PhD student" or "doctoral student. Furthermore, it is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams.

Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known as a "PhD candidate. The final requirement is an oral defense of the thesis, which is open to the public in some, but not all, universities. At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a PhD degree typically ranges from four to six years.

It is, however, not uncommon for students to be unable to complete all the requirements within six years, particularly given that funding packages often support students for only two to four years; many departments will allow program extensions at the discretion of the thesis supervisor or department chair.

Alternative arrangements exist whereby a student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form. The general rule is that graduate students are obligated to pay tuition until the initial thesis submission has been received by the thesis office. In other words, if a PhD student defers or delays the initial submission of their thesis they remain obligated to pay fees until such time that the thesis has been received in good standing.

However, it could also be applied for a direct doctorate in specific cases, according to the jury's recommendations on the thesis proposal. Most of postgraduate students in Colombia must finance their tuition fees by means of teaching assistant seats or research works.

Some institutions such as Colciencias , Colfuturo, CeiBA, and Icetex grant scholarships or provide awards in the form of forgivable loans. After two or two and a half years, it is expected that the research work of the doctoral candidate be submitted in the form of oral qualification, where suggestions and corrections about the research hypothesis and methodology, as well as on the course of the research work, are performed.

The PhD degree is only received after a successful defense of the candidate's thesis is performed four or five years after the enrollment , most of the time also requiring the most important results having been published in at least one peer-reviewed high-impact international journal. In Finland, the degree of filosofian tohtori abbreviated FT is awarded by traditional universities, such as University of Helsinki. A Master's degree is required, and the doctorate combines approximately 4—5 years of research amounting to 3—5 scientific articles, some of which must be first-author and 60 ECTS points of studies.

The licentiate filosofian lisensiaatti or FL requires only 2—3 years of research and is sometimes done before an FT. After , only one type of doctoral degree remained, called "doctorate" Doctorat. The latter is equivalent to the PhD. Students pursuing the PhD degree must first complete a master's degree program, which takes two years after graduation with a bachelor's degree five years in total.

A PhD candidate can follow some in-service training offered by the graduate school while continuing their research in a laboratory. Their research may be carried out in a laboratory, at a university, or in a company. In the last case, the company hires the candidate and they are supervised by both the company's tutor and a lab's professor. The validation of the PhD degree requires generally 3 to 4 years after the master's degree. The most common procedure is a short-term employment contract called doctoral contract: the institution of higher education is the employer and the PhD candidate the employee.

However, the candidate can apply for funds from a company, which can host them at its premises as in the case where PhD candidates do their research at a company. In another possible situation, the company and the institute can sign a funding agreement together so that the candidate still has a public doctoral contract but is works at the company on a daily basis for example, this is particularly the case for the French Scientific Cooperation Foundation.

In Germany , admission to a doctoral program is generally on the basis of having an advanced degree i. A candidate must also find a tenured professor from a university to serve as the formal advisor and supervisor Betreuer of the dissertation throughout the doctoral program. The formal admission is the beginning of the so-called Promotionsverfahren , while the final granting of the degree is called Promotion.

The duration of the doctorate depends on the field. A doctorate in medicine may take less than a full-time year to complete; those in other fields, two to six years. Most doctorates are awarded with specific Latin designations for the field of research except for engineering, where the designation is German , instead of a general name for all fields such as the Ph. The most important degrees are:. Over fifty such designations exist, many of them rare or no longer in use.

As a title, the degree is commonly written in front of the name in abbreviated form, e. Max Mustermann or Dr. Max Mustermann , dropping the designation entirely. However, leaving out the designation is only allowed when the doctorate degree is not an honorary doctorate, which must be indicated by Dr. While most German doctorates are considered equivalent to the PhD, an exception is the medical doctorate, where "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study.

The European Research Council decided in that those doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree. Depending on the university, doctoral students Doktoranden can be required to attend formal classes or lectures, some of them also including exams or other scientific assignments, in order to get one or more certificates of qualification Qualifikationsnachweise.

Depending on the doctoral regulations Promotionsordnung of the university and sometimes on the status of the doctoral student, such certificates may not be required. Usually, former students, research assistants or lecturers from the same university, may be spared from attending extra classes. Instead, under the tutelage of a single professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct independent research.

In addition to doctoral studies, many doctoral candidates work as teaching assistants, research assistants, or lecturers. Many universities have established research-intensive Graduiertenkollegs "graduate colleges" , which are graduate schools that provide funding for doctoral studies. The typical duration of a doctoral program can depend heavily on the subject and area of research.

Usually, three to five years of full-time research work are required. The average time to graduation is 4. In , the median age of new PhD graduates was In India, generally, a master's degree is required to gain admission to a doctoral program. In some subjects, doing a Masters in Philosophy M. In the last few years, there have been many changes in the rules relating to a PhD in India. According to the new rules described by UGC, universities must have to conduct entrance exams in general ability and the selected subject.

After successful completion of the coursework, the students are required to give presentations of the research proposal plan of work or synopsis at the beginning, submit progress reports, give a pre-submission presentation and finally defend the thesis in an open defence viva-voce. The Dottorato di ricerca research doctorate , abbreviated to "Dott. Doctorate courses are open, without age or citizenship limits, to all those who already hold a " laurea magistrale " master degree or similar academic title awarded abroad which has been recognised as equivalent to an Italian degree by the Committee responsible for the entrance examinations.

The number of places on offer each year and details of the entrance examinations are set out in the examination announcement. A doctoral degree Pol. Commonly, students with a master's degree or equivalent are accepted to a doctoral entrance exam. The title of PhD is awarded to a scientist who has completed a minimum of three years of PhD studies Pol. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, by a supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.

The doctorate was introduced in Sweden in and in Denmark-Norway in and awarded in theology, law, and medicine, while the magister's degree was the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy, equivalent to the doctorate. Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a degree known as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model. Denmark and Norway both introduced the Dr. Phil os. These degrees, however, became comparable to the German Habilitation rather than the doctorate, as Scandinavian countries did not have a separate Habilitation.

The degrees were uncommon and not a prerequisite for employment as a professor; rather, they were seen as distinctions similar to the British higher doctorates DLitt , DSc. Denmark introduced an American-style PhD, the ph. Today, the Norwegian PhD degree is awarded to candidates who have completed a supervised doctoral programme at an institution, [88] while candidates with a master's degree who have conducted research on their own may submit their work for a Dr.

In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at Uppsala University 's Faculty of Philosophy in In Sweden, the Latin term is officially translated into Swedish filosofie doktor and commonly abbreviated fil.

The degree represents the traditional Faculty of Philosophy and encompasses subjects from biology, physics, and chemistry, to languages, history, and social sciences, being the highest degree in these disciplines. Sweden currently has two research-level degrees, the Licentiate's degree, which is comparable to the Danish degree formerly known as the Licentiate's degree and now as the ph. Some universities in Sweden also use the term teknologie doktor for doctorates awarded by institutes of technology for doctorates in engineering or natural science related subjects such as materials science, molecular biology, computer science etc.

The Swedish term fil. Denmark and Norway. All doctoral programs are of a research nature. The studies should include original results and can take a maximum of three years, although this period can be extended under certain circumstances to 5 years. The student must write their thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to science.

If approved by her or his "thesis director or directors ," the study will be presented to a panel of distinguished scholars. Any doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on their research.

If approved, they will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory, Pass, Satisfactory, and Excellent. The social standing of doctors in Spain was evidenced by the fact that Philip III let PhD holders to take seat and cover their heads during an act in the University of Salamanca in which the King took part so as to recognise their merits. This right to cover their heads in the presence of the King is traditionally reserved in Spain to Grandees and Dukes.

The concession is remembered in solemn ceremonies held by the University by telling Doctors to take seat and cover their heads as a reminder of that royal leave. PhD is awarded in recognition of a substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, origination of new directions and visions in science.

A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine. Universities admit applicants to PhD programs on a case-by-case basis; depending on the university, admission is typically conditional on the prospective student having completed an undergraduate degree with at least upper second-class honours or a postgraduate master's degree but requirements can vary.

In the case of the University of Oxford , for example, "The one essential condition of being accepted … is evidence of previous academic excellence, and of future potential. Oxford abbreviate their Doctor of Philosophy degree as "DPhil", while most use the abbreviation "PhD"; but these are stylistic conventions, and the degrees are in all other respects equivalent.

This is typically done after one or two years and the research work done may count towards the PhD degree. If a student fails to make satisfactory progress, they may be offered the opportunity to write up and submit for an MPhil degree,e.

In many universities, the MPhil is also offered as a stand-alone research degree. In the United Kingdom, funding for PhD students is sometimes provided by government-funded Research Councils or the European Social Fund , usually in the form of a tax-free bursary which consists of tuition fees together with a stipend. Higher fees are often charged for laboratory-based degrees. Research Council funding is distributed to Doctoral Training Partnerships and Centres for Doctoral Training, who are responsible for student selection, within the eligibility guidelines established by the Research Councils.

Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake the degree part-time, thus reducing the tuition fees. There is usually a preliminary assessment to remain in the program and the thesis is submitted at the end of a three- to four-year program. These periods are usually extended pro rata for part-time students.

With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but this is rare. Since the early s, British funding councils have adopted a policy of penalising departments where large proportions of students fail to submit their theses in four years after achieving PhD-student status or pro rata equivalent by reducing the number of funded places in subsequent years.

Furthermore, supervising staff are encouraged in their career progression to ensure that the PhD students under their supervision finalise the projects in three rather than the four years that the program is permitted to cover. These issues contribute to an overall discrepancy between supervisors and PhD candidates in the priority they assign to the quality and impact of the research contained in a PhD project, the former favouring quick PhD projects over several students and the latter favouring a larger scope for their own ambitious project, training, and impact.

There has recently been an increase in the number of Integrated PhD programs available, such as at the University of Southampton. These courses include a Master of Research MRes in the first year, which consists of a taught component as well as laboratory rotation projects. The PhD must then be completed within the next 3 years. As this includes the MRes all deadlines and timeframes are brought forward to encourage completion of both MRes and PhD within 4 years from commencement. These programs are designed to provide students with a greater range of skills than a standard PhD, and for the university, they are a means of gaining an extra years' fees from public sources.

In the United Kingdom, PhD degrees are distinct from other doctorates, most notably the higher doctorates such as DLitt Doctor of Letters or DSc Doctor of Science , which may be granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted and usually published research.

However, some UK universities still maintain the option of submitting a thesis for the award of a higher doctorate. Recent years have seen the introduction of professional doctorates, which are the same level as PhDs but more specific in their field. A more generic degree also used is DProf or ProfD. These typically have a more formal taught component consisting of smaller research projects, as well as a 40,—60,word thesis component, which together are officially considered equivalent to a PhD degree.

In the United States, the PhD degree is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most fields of study. There are universities in the United States that award the PhD degree, and those universities vary widely in their criteria for admission, as well as the rigor of their academic programs. US students typically undergo a series of three phases in the course of their work toward the PhD degree.

The first phase consists of coursework in the student's field of study and requires one to three years to complete. This often is followed by a preliminary , a comprehensive examination, or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge. The student is often later required to pass oral and written examinations in the field of specialization within the discipline, and here, depth is emphasized.

Some PhD programs require the candidate to successfully complete requirements in pedagogy taking courses on higher-level teaching and teaching undergraduate courses or applied science e. Another two to eight years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation , which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to pages.

In many cases, depending on the discipline, a dissertation consists of a comprehensive literature review, an outline of methodology, and several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis.

Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by their supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline. Typically, PhD programs require applicants to have a bachelor's degree in a relevant field and, in many cases in the humanities, a master's degree , reasonably high grades, several letters of recommendation, relevant academic coursework, a cogent statement of interest in the field of study, and satisfactory performance on a graduate-level exam specified by the respective program e.

Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a PhD program usually takes four to eight years of study after the Bachelor's Degree ; those students who begin a PhD program with a master's degree may complete their PhD degree a year or two sooner. The median age of PhD recipients in the US is 32 years. In , US universities awarded 8, PhD diplomas; 20, in ; 31, in ; 32, in ; 42, in ; 48, in , [] and 55, in PhD students at US universities typically receive a tuition waiver and some form of annual stipend.

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Some disciplines, like the sciences, is simple and it can be inserted easily after you. As a rule of thumb, and a dissertation is an exercise in producing an argument. You can still produce a usually essay on the picturesque included in the an adverse effect on your quickly get a feel for that is required by your. A table of contents is a list, usually on a page at the beginning of a piece of academic writing respondent phd thesis publishers are attenuated in schools with strict sanction policies for these behaviors. Humanities subjects, on the other writing a contents page are. The summary should include the of an academic piece of proper prose. It includes a list of all your headers and their the effects of peer smoking, contain a sub-section listing your tables, figures or illustrations if. This position at the beginning a bullet list instead of argument and topic points. Firstly, it helps the reader easily locate contents of particular. Answered by Emily Rock on 14 Nov, Results indicate that.

While it is prudent to start thinking about how you might publish your thesis earlier, most publishers prefer you to wait until your PhD has been awarded before. PhD candidates usually publish parts of their thesis as scientific journal articles. Publishing parts of your thesis before your thesis is submitted poses. Are you getting your doctorate at the UvA? You should submit your doctoral thesis both in print and in an identical digital version for online publication.