automated class scheduling system thesis

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Automated class scheduling system thesis

The proponents require replacing the existing system and adopting the new version. The proponents need to adjust for the upcoming software. Process risk. The system might hang if the user doesnt know what the process. The proponents provide a user manual to help them how to use the system.

The plan of this proposed system is to have an easy way in evaluating the professors of the school. Project Closeout Plan The proponents will do their best to finish the system. They learned that it takes months to create a system and difficulties are expected to arise. It also presents the proposed computerized class scheduling system. The preparation starts six months prior to the start of enrollment. In the initial stage of preparation, the Registrars Office provides the initial input for the Planning and Extension Office and for the HR Department when necessary.

These inputs are the subject offerings for the coming semester. Other inputs would come from the Heads on the different departments. Only the Deans or heads the different departments. Upon plotting the schedules for general education, the planning office integrates the schedules plotted by department heads with the corresponding faculty members assigned on every subject.

After the integration, the registrar collects all the data for initial review and checking for conflicting assignments which is more common for the higher years due to students with irregular schedules. These students do not belong to any block section. Most irregular students who enrolled advance subjects and others might as well be taking these subjects the next semester.

After the schedules are thoroughly checked for errors, the plotted schedules would be submitted to the VPAA for rechecking and approval. After it was approved, the plotted schedules will now be posted on all bulletin boards within the campus. In the meantime, plotting forms are prepared for students and faculty members to use during the enrollment.

The widest downside of the manual scheduling approach is that the scheduler cannot look at every combination of schedules and evaluate which one is the best. Since the scheduler cannot look at every combination, it is likely that an overlap in courses is necessary in order to schedule all the courses into the timetable.

Some quarters might work out with minimal overlap at the class level; however other. These overlaps affect the students ability to take their desired courses. Proposed Computerized Class Scheduling System Through the proposed computerized class scheduling system, the class scheduling would be easily manage and records would be easily tracked, processed and stored, because the proposed system will provide a module for the Planning and Extension Office PEO and the Registrars Office that allows the personnel in-charge to generate or create a report or even make the necessary adjustments on specific records in real time.

This would be possible, for the proposed system allows other departments, such as the office of the Deans and Department Head, to have an access with the system so that they could generate a copy of the students class schedule from the server. Using any web browser installed in the computer, personnel can view there students information in web base format. On this web based module it allows transactional.

MySQL 5. Factors that Affects the Performance of the System Speed. Speed refers to the capability of the system to handle data in time that the user is satisfied. Many things must be considered in order to make the system execute faster. As records increases in the database, the performance of the computer decreases.

In order to solve this problem, database backup must be done weekly and database cleaning to remove unnecessary records. Previous schedule are not needed anymore so it must be deleted. In terms of hardware, using the required computer hardware is necessary. Server computer must me used and clients must be the latest personal computer available in the market. Upgrading can be done every five years to level up with the increasing number of records.

Accuracy refers to the capability of the system to produce desired output. In order to do this in class scheduling system, data formatting is needed. Data format sets guidelines for users to enter correct input. Time format must be. The system has been tested and presented to the registrar several times in order to check for its accuracy. This refers to the safekeeping of records as they stayed in the database.

Security is very important in systems. To ensure data security, login forms must be present. Login form requires users to enter their username and password. Password must be hidden so as to not be seen or hacked by others.

Using Power Users is also effective security tool. Categorizing accounts and controlling individual features to ensure that correct functionality is provided. Database backup is also one way of security in systems. Using incremental or differential, the system administrator must decide what type of backup to be used. Data Handling. This refers to the ability of the system to efficiently handle or manage data as user uses the system. As data increases the computer computers performance decreases.

Handling of data must be taken significantly to ensure the efficiency of the system. Every data must be categorized in the database together with its correct format and data types. Secondary accesses will be at the extension office of the registrar, and in all of the Deans Offices. As regards to the controls and security measures, the school LAN should be set-up as Class C network that would be divided into four 4 sub-networks or subnets. One of the four subnets should be dedicated to the server and all workstations that would be allowed to access the proposed class scheduling System.

Figure 3. System Requirements For the system to be able to maximize its performance, it requires some hardware and software specifications. Software Specification Some software needs to be installed for the proposed Class Scheduling.

This softwares are needed to perform its functions to control the flow of operations and provide secured access to the database. Anti-virus must be installed also for security purposes from viruses. First, the registrar gets the previous schedule for revision. They revised it believing that, this is the fastest way of making a schedule. Adding schedules of another section is what they are doing. One error can lead to lot of problems if not seen by the registrar. Class schedule usually took two to three weeks to make the temporary schedule.

The class schedule done is still temporary since alterations is done during. This is due to inefficient scheduling. Rooms and instructors are changed due to conflicts and unavailability of instructors. Sometimes it is due to conflict in schedule itself that is not seen before the enrollment. Human error contributes a lot in this error. Rooms are not also used efficiently due to wrong scheduling. Rooms are not fully occupied during the day leaving spaces that no one uses it.

The following are the factors that affect the performance of the system that can lead to system error if not considered significantly. In terms of speed, the system is programed in a web based form to increases the speed of transactions. Network configurations are managed by the operating system and not by the system. User training must also be conducted to familiarize user about how to use properly the system. In terms of accuracy, the system uses time format to ensure the correctness of output.

In terms of security, the first page that will appear in the system is the login page. Username and password must be provided to access the content of the system. Two power users are presented to the system in order to restrict and divide functionalities. The administrator controls user accounts. A hidden and fixed emergency username and password can show the username and. PHP programming was also used in the system thus hiding codes if anyone wants to view the source code.

This is the fastest and most efficient way of data handling. With the use of PHP programming, data are also executed the fastest way. Conclusions The manual system is surely a traditional way of making schedules. However, the automated class scheduling system is more efficient because of the distinctive performance in the aspect of speed, project design, accuracy and stability of the system in the preparation of class schedules, room schedules and instructors load. With these features, the automated system can really solve the primary problems being encountered during the class schedule preparation.

Recommendations With the foregoing conclusions, the researchers recommend the following:. Security policies and other control measures must be adopted to ensure the security of confidential records. An in depth training has to be given to the Registrar and all concerned employees directly involved in the usage of the CSS so that they will be oriented with the proper use of the proposed system.

Migration for the existing records to the proposed system has to be performed. Assessment of the proposed system has to be conducted regularly. Hardware and software specifications based on the system recommendation must be adopted for better performance. Introduction 37 Appendix D Questions 1. Answers a. Conflict of schedule of student, instructor and rooms. Lack of rooms. Lack of teachers. Changes in schedules. Immediate change in schedule. Open navigation menu.

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Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: Class Scheduling System. Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures Williams, Class Scheduling Username and Password.

Class Time, Room Viewing Student schedule. All Users including Viewing all subject offerings for the upcoming semester. Introduction 6 2. Introduction 10 Definition of Terms The following terms below provides for an operational definition that would aid the reader with a greater understanding on this study.

Each prototype is delivered to the client with working functionality and changes made based on the clients feedback. Introduction 13 The guidelines that will follow in the analysis and implementation of this study are as follows: Using analysis and measurement as driers of the enhancement process is one major difference between iterative enhancement and the current agile development methods. Introduction 14 Analysis and Quick Design. Introduction 16 Research and Document analysis.

Introduction 18 Quality Control The proposed system is expected to work properly. Only the Deans or heads the different departments know the specific subjects with laboratory attachments, actual number of students within the department, the number and availability of laboratory rooms to be used in the coming semesters, and the availability of faculty members qualified to teach on the available subjects.

Introduction 23 Upon plotting the schedules for general education, the planning office integrates the schedules plotted by department heads with the corresponding faculty members assigned on every subject. Recommendations With the foregoing conclusions, the researchers recommend the following: 1. Introduction 36 2. Re-scheduling students. What are the materials Pen and Paper, computer for do you use in the encoding of schedules, printer.

How many persons are Four to five personnel in the involved or in charge registrar. How many days are 2 to 3 weeks to create a needed for you to temporary schedule and changes finish the scheduling were done during the enrolment of students and process. What are the See next page for the enrolment processes involved in procedure. Pheng Tiosen.

Jhandy Abella. Joey Cereno. Leandro Sampang. Ian Paul Valeza Alberto. McBilly Wilford Sy. Twyllah Phyllis. Marlon Benson Quinto. Selina Soto. Amorsiko Exe. Rahul Patel. Discipline: Education. The study tested the functionality of Automated Class Scheduling System in terms of speed, data handling, accuracy, security, stability and adaptability in making class schedules. The respondents of this study were the 6 expert instructors in the field of computer programming.

They tested and evaluated the functionality of the program in terms of its design, accuracy, data handling, security, stability and adaptability. Another 8 instructors who are in charge of making class schedules determined the functionality of the system in terms of speed, accuracy, data handling, stability and adaptability of the software. Separate set of questionnaires were given to two groups of respondents. The study concluded that the manual and the automated class scheduling systems are both functional.

However, the automated system is more functional because of its extra features which solve the primary problems in creating class schedules.

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Custom speech editing service for school Then we present the results of our thorough computational automated class scheduling system thesis for which standard sets of project instances have been used. The widest downside of the manual scheduling approach is that the scheduler cannot look at every combination of schedules and evaluate which one is the best. The proponents provide a user manual to help them how to use the system. Pallas, and Gary Global essays Abstract Urban high schools operating in complex social and organizational environments are likely to face high levels of uncertainty that may make it difficult to manage core organizational processes efficiently and that may lead to tensions among technical logics of action and institutionalized beliefs about schooling. Evaluation of ordering automated class scheduling system thesis for constraint satisfaction reactive scheduling Abstract Reactive scheduling is essential in any scheduling system to incrementally reconcile the discrepancies between the generative schedule and current status of the factory. It focuses on papers published within the last decade, addressing a variety of machine configurations including single machine, parallel machine, flow shop, and job shop systems and reviews the optimization and heuristic solution methods used for each category.

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Class ConnectionTM is a microprocessor based intercom and building management system. Although predominately used in K schools, the system often finds applications in retirement homes, parking garages, large office buildings and large manufacturing facilities. This manual, however, is written with academic applications in mind. Snap Schedule Premium gives you enterprise-class scheduling power with more control and more flexibility. Designed for multiple schedulers working concurrently and accessing the same information from anywhere, it has all the features in Snap Schedule and scales up to grow as your business grows.

Schedule student classes quickly and easily with CyberMatrix Class Scheduler. CyberMatrix Class Scheduler is an easy to use single or multi-user application for student class scheduling. The software is ideal for schools and other educational institutions that need to quickly schedule classes. The Team Sports Scheduling System has been designed to help you quickly create league schedules for your sport organization.

With it you can create tournament, round-robin, official, and practice schedules for nearly any sport. Some features you will find in this version of the program include internet integration,customizable website or report,practice scheduling,official scheduling and more. Major parts of the system were designed and coded by Columbia University students. LEKIN was created as an educational tool with the main purpose of introducing the students to scheduling theory and its applications.

The program is to be used on the Local Area Network and is used to monitor and record user activity. The LANVisor system is compatible with remote control software, which allows you to control the mouse and keyboard of a computer connected to the network.

PC Sleep is a free easy-to-use application that performs simple but useful time-related actions. Several system functions are available. In this respect, you will be able to log off, restart your system, shut it down, and put it in standby or in hibernation.

The developers have avoided crowding the interface with useless elements so that you can use this program right from the start. The application features a very attractive and user-friendly interface that keeps everything at hand. OrgScheduler is a universal scheduling system for your individual, offices, business events with unrivaled features and flexibility.

Schedule your single-elimination, double-elimination, and consolation tournament bracket schedules as well as your round-robin and practice schedules all from one program. Plus, TSSS schedules officials for your round-robin and tournament games as well! VORG is the software that empowers you to store in one place calendars, tasks, contacts, notes and documents. Another 8 instructors who are in charge of making class schedules determined the functionality of the system in terms of speed, accuracy, data handling, stability and adaptability of the software.

Separate set of questionnaires were given to two groups of respondents. The study concluded that the manual and the automated class scheduling systems are both functional. However, the automated system is more functional because of its extra features which solve the primary problems in creating class schedules Evaluation of ordering strategies for constraint satisfaction reactive scheduling Abstract Reactive scheduling is essential in any scheduling system to incrementally reconcile the discrepancies between the generative schedule and current status of the factory.

Typical events requiring the reactive scheduling process include the delayed delivery of materials, machine breakdown, and failure to meet quality control standards. To efficiently cope with these unexpected events, a reactive scheduling procedure is proposed based on the constraint satisfaction approach, and applied to the reactive adjustment of hot-rolling schedules at steelworks.

Various domain-specific strategies are devised as variable and value-ordering heuristics to guide the search directions in the reactive scheduling process, and implemented in a scheduling expert system. From the experiment conducted on the prototype system developed, we find that the schedule performance is mainly determined by the variable ordering strategy based on the criticality of scheduling activities, and it can be further improved by adopting the appropriate value- ordering strategy based on the least constraining resource heuristic.

This paper deals with the hybrid flow shop scheduling problems in which there are sequence dependent setup times, commonly known as the SDST hybrid flow shops. This type of production system is found in industries such as chemical, textile, metallurgical, printed circuit board, and automobile manufacture. With the increase in manufacturing complexity, conventional scheduling techniques for generating a reasonable manufacturing schedule have become ineffective. An immune algorithm IA can be used to tackle complex problems and produce a reasonable manufacturing schedule within an acceptable time.

This paper describes an immune algorithm approach to the scheduling of a SDST hybrid flow shop. An overview of the hybrid flow shops and the basic notions of an IA are first presented. Subsequently, the details of an IA approach are described and implemented. This article reviews the current prevalence of sleepiness and sleep deprivation among college students, contributing factors for sleep deprivation, and the role of sleep in learning and memory.

The impact of sleep and sleep disorders on academics, grade point average, driving, and mood will be examined. Most importantly, effective and viable interventions to decrease sleepiness and sleep deprivation through sleep education classes, online programs, encouragement of naps, and adjustment of class time will be reviewed. This paper highlights that addressing sleep issues, which are not often considered as a risk factor for depression and academic failure, should be encouraged.

Promotion of university and college policies and class schedules that encourage healthy and adequate sleep could have a significant impact on the sleep, learning, and health of college students. Future research to investigate effective and feasible interventions, which disseminate both sleep knowledge and encouragement of healthy sleep habits to college students in a time and cost effective manner, is a priority.

As with all Second surveys, respondents were not required to answer all of the questions, nor were all questions proffered to each respondent; as such, the number of respondents varies by question. Topics included staffing level; primary responsibility for data entry; importance of various factors in the scheduling process; process timeline, availability of year-long registration; enrollment thresholds; the use of technology for class scheduling and student schedule planning; and the expected return on investment associated with the technology.

Responses were collected from institutions representing several combinations of control, size and type Appendix B. One prevailing conclusion that can be gleaned from the results of this survey is that class scheduling practices vary; some scheduling services are centralized others are not, half use assistive technology and half do not, and some have generous staff resources, while others do not. This study was conducted in Bohol Island state University Main Campus, Tagbilaran City during the second semester of school year They tested and evaluated the functionality of the program in terms of its design, and accuracy, data handling security, stability and adaptability of the software.

Separate set of questioners were given to two groups of respondents. The study concluded that the manual and the automated system is more functional because of its extra features which solve primary problems in creating class schedules Based on the researcher Abstract A web based-schedule viewing system for VERITAS Parochial School VPS in Manila was developed to help its students search in a more efficient way without hassles. It is with the web-based viewing schedule system for VPS that this style of searching may beachieved.

This new type of system offers its students new option for searching at VPS. By logging on to VPS website. Two types of mapping heuristics are considered: on-line and batch mode heuristics. Three new heuristics, one for batch and two for on-line, are introduced as part of this research. Simulation studies are performed to compare these heuristics with some existing ones. In total, five on-line heuristics and three batch heuristics are examined.

The on-line heuristics consider; to varying degrees and in different ways, task affinity for different machines and machine ready times. The batch heuristics consider these factors, as well as aging of tasks waiting to execute.

The simulation results reveal that the choice of mapping heuristic depends on parameters such as: a the structure of the heterogeneity among tasks and machines, b the optimization requirements, and c the arrival rate of the tasks. A taxonomy of scheduling in general-purpose distributed computing systems Abstract One measure of the usefulness of a general-purpose distributed computing system is the system's ability to provide a level of performance commensurate to the degree of multiplicity of resources present in the system.

A taxonomy of approaches to the resource management problem is presented in an attempt to provide a common terminology and classification mechanism necessary in addressing this problem. The taxonomy, while presented and discussed in terms of distributed scheduling, is also applicable to most types of resource management. In this environment, as the resources are usually distributed geographically at various levels department, enterprise or worldwide , there is a great challenge in integrating, coordinating and presenting them as a single resource to the user, thus forming a computational grid.

Abramson et al. It focuses on the management and scheduling of computations over dynamic resources scattered geographically across the Internet at department, enterprise or global levels, with particular emphasis on developing scheduling schemes based on the concept of computational economy for a real testbed, namely the Globus testbed GUSTO. A fast, effective local search for scheduling independent jobs in heterogeneous computing environments Abstract: The efficient scheduling of independent computational jobs in a heterogeneous computing HC environment is an important problem in domains such as grid computing.

Finding optimal schedules for such an environment is in general an NP-hard problem, and so heuristic approaches must be used. Work with other NP-hard problems has shown that solutions found by heuristic algorithms can often be improved by applying local search procedures to the solution found.

This paper describes a simple but effective local search procedure for scheduling independent jobs in HC environments which, when combined with fast construction heuristics, can find shorter schedules on benchmark problems than other solution techniques found in the literature, and in significantly less time.

So-called Data Grids seek to harness geographically distributed resources for such large-scale data-intensive problems. Yet effective scheduling in such environments is challenging, due to a need to address a variety of metrics and constraints while dealing with multiple, potentially independent sources of jobs and a large number of storage, compute, and network resources. We describe a scheduling framework that addresses these problems. Within this framework, data movement operations may be either tightly bound to job scheduling decisions or, alternatively, performed by a decoupled, asynchronous process on the basis of observed data access patterns and load.

We develop a family of algorithms and use simulation studies to evaluate various combinations. Our results suggest that while it is necessary to consider the impact of replication, it is not always necessary to couple data movement and computation scheduling. Instead, these two activities can be addressed separately, thus significantly simplifying the design and implementation. We propose a new genetic algorithm approach to solve this problem. Subsequently, we compare it to two genetic algorithm concepts from the literature.

While our approach makes use of a permutation based genetic encoding that contains problem-specific knowledge, the other two procedures employ a priority value based and a priority rule based representation, respectively.

Then we present the results of our thorough computational study for which standard sets of project instances have been used. Finally, we show that our genetic algorithm yields better results than several heuristic procedures presented in the literature. Naval Research Logistics —, Multiple and bicriteria scheduling: A literature survey Abstract Real life scheduling problems require the decision maker to consider a number of criteria before arriving at any decision.

A solution which is optimal with respect to a given criterion might be a poor candidate for some other. The trade-offs involved in considering several different criteria provide useful insights to the decision maker. Thus considering problems with more than one criterion is more relevant in the context of real life scheduling problems.

Surprisingly, research in this important field has been scarce when compared to research in single criterion scheduling. In this paper, we provide a detailed literature survey of multiple and bacteria problems in scheduling. We also provide a broad classification scheme for scheduling problems. These data are generally accessed by many users from all across the globe. This implies a major necessity to move huge amounts of data around wide area networks to complete the computation cycle, which brings with it the problem of efficient and reliable data placement.

The current approach to solve this problem of data placement is either doing it manually, or employing simple scripts which do not have any automation or fault tolerance capabilities. Our goal is to make data placement activities first class citizens in the Grid just like the computational jobs.

They will be queued, scheduled, monitored, managed, and even check-pointed. More importantly, it will be made sure that they complete successfully and without any human interaction. We also believe that data placement jobs should be treated differently from computational jobs, since they may have different semantics and different characteristics. For this purpose, we have developed Stork, a scheduler for data placement activities in the grid.

Foreign Literature Design and implementation of a course scheduling system using Tabu Search Abstract Building a course timetable is a difficult and lengthy task which universities devote a large amount of human and material resources to every year. We have developed a computer package to solve this problem. The program runs on a PC and the user may set the objectives and parameters from among a wide range of possibilities.

It has a user-friendly interface for the user to input the relevant data and obtain the corresponding results. The core is a Tabu Search procedure for which several strategies have been developed and tested in order to get a fast and powerful algorithm. The first tests of the package have produced satisfactory results. Evaluation of ordering strategies for constraint satisfaction reactive scheduling Abstract Reactive scheduling is essential in any scheduling system to incrementally reconcile the discrepancies between the generative schedule and current status of the factory.

Teaching and Learning in the College Classroom. McKeachie, Wilbert J. Veal, David J. Flinders Abstract Block scheduling has become an increasingly popular reform movement for schools, school districts, and principals to enact. Much of the decision making as to whether to implement some type of block scheduling has occurred without understanding the implications this type of reform has on teachers and their classroom practices.

This paper reports on a study conducted in a high school with three contiguous schedule types. Teachers, parents and students perceptions were ascertained to determine the impact of scheduling change on teachers and their classroom practices. Likert scale surveys, interviews, classrooms observations, and text data were used to compile a picture of how and why teachers adjusted to the change in schedule.

Four areas of change from the surveys and supported with other qualitative data are reported: 1 methods of instruction, 2 opportunities for reflection, 3 student-teacher rapport, and 4 levels of anxiety. These results are then discussed and compared to the broader view of beneficial changes for block scheduling and the stability of context.

Overview of a performance evaluation system for global computing scheduling algorithms Abstract While there have been several proposals of high-performance global computing systems, scheduling schemes for the systems have not been well investigated. The reason is difficulties of evaluation by large-scale benchmarks with reproducible results. Our Bricks performance evaluation system allows the analysis and comparison of various scheduling schemes in a typical high-performance global computing setting.

Bricks can simulate various behaviors of global computing systems, especially the behavior of networks and resource scheduling algorithms. To test the validity of the latter characteristics, we incorporated the NWS Network Weather Service system, which monitors and forecasts global computing systems behavior. Experiments were conducted by running NWS under a real environment versus a Bricks-simulated environment, given the observed parameters of the real environment.

Pallas, and Gary Natriello Abstract Urban high schools operating in complex social and organizational environments are likely to face high levels of uncertainty that may make it difficult to manage core organizational processes efficiently and that may lead to tensions among technical logics of action and institutionalized beliefs about schooling.

Such tensions can be observed in the course-scheduling process, one of the most important administrative routines supporting the core instructional program of the school. Scheduling matches students with human and intellectual resources in the school and has the potential to sort students into different educational trajectories.

This article reports on a study of course scheduling in five urban high schools. Although the scheduling process was enacted in all schools, and students and teachers had schedules in hand on the first day of the semester, many schedules were riddled with problems and inaccuracies that did not enable students and teachers to begin the academic term in an orderly and productive fashion.

To explain why such a scenario can persist year after year, technical and institutional influences on the process were explored. In all five schools, the scheduling process reflected widely held beliefs and understandings about schools and students. These institutionalized understandings were frequently inconsistent with technical exigencies surrounding course scheduling, resulting in a dynamic process that was not always efficient or effective.

An immune algorithm approach to hybrid flow shops scheduling with sequence-dependent setup times Abstract Much of the research on operations scheduling problems has either ignored setup times or assumed that setup times on each machine are independent of the job sequence.

Abstract This paper reviews the literature on 4x4 block scheduling. Discipline is enhanced through this type of schedule because it decreases the number of times that students are moving in the halls between disciplined environments. The schedule promotes student achievement by allowing students to attend additional classes during their 4-year high school tenure, by encouraging more engaging learning activities, and by allowing students to concentrate narrowly on the four subjects taken each semester.

This concentration may allow for better mastery of material, but it does not allow for the breadth of coverage found in traditional schedules. Consequently, the 4x4 block schedule should not be implemented in districts where test scores and strict adherence to state curriculum guides are considered sacred. Furthermore, student motivation plays a large part in the success or failure of the 4x4 block schedule; motivated students excel in such an environment, whereas poorly motivated students sometimes fall further behind than in traditional schedule environments.

It is emphasized that careful planning in implementing 4x4 scheduling is essential to its success. Contains 21 references. The participants were 67 college students enrolled in 5 sections 4 experimental sections and 1 control section of a beginning-level French course.

In the advance organizer declarative AO. In the advance organizer interrogative AO? For each question, the teacher suggested 3 possible answers, making no indication as to which one was correct. The control condition consisted of a group of students who watched the same videos as in the AO.

And the AO? Conditions, but had no advance organizer before the video viewings. Student performance with 10 videos introduced in each of these 3 ways was examined on tests of information in the videos.

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