Medical research introduces special moral and ethical problems that are not usually encountered by other researchers during data collection, and hence, the researcher should take special care in ensuring that ethical standards are met. Ethical considerations refer to the protection of the participants' rights right to self-determination, right to privacy, right to autonomy and confidentiality, right to fair treatment and right to protection from discomfort and harm , obtaining informed consent and the institutional review process ethical approval.
The researcher needs to provide adequate information on each of these aspects. Informed consent needs to be obtained from the participants details discussed in further chapters , as well as the research site and the relevant authorities. All items in the budget should be justified. Appendices are documents that support the proposal and application. The appendices will be specific for each proposal but documents that are usually required include informed consent form, supporting documents, questionnaires, measurement tools and patient information of the study in layman's language.
As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used in composing your proposal. It refers to all references cited in the research proposal. Successful, qualitative research proposals should communicate the researcher's knowledge of the field and method and convey the emergent nature of the qualitative design. The proposal should follow a discernible logic from the introduction to presentation of the appendices. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Indian J Anaesth v. Indian J Anaesth. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. Abstract Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. Key words: Guidelines, proposal, qualitative, research. Open in a separate window.
Review of literature It refers to all sources of scientific evidence pertaining to the topic in interest. Aims and objectives The research purpose or goal or aim gives a broad indication of what the researcher wishes to achieve in the research. Data collection The researcher is expected to give a detailed account of the methodology adopted for collection of data, which include the time frame required for the research.
Rigor soundness of the research This addresses the strength of the research with respect to its neutrality, consistency and applicability. Neutrality It refers to the robustness of a research method against bias. Consistency Consistency considers whether the findings will be consistent if the inquiry was replicated with the same participants and in a similar context. Applicability Applicability refers to the degree to which the findings can be applied to different contexts and groups.
Data analysis This section deals with the reduction and reconstruction of data and its analysis including sample size calculation. Ethical considerations Medical research introduces special moral and ethical problems that are not usually encountered by other researchers during data collection, and hence, the researcher should take special care in ensuring that ethical standards are met.
Appendices Appendices are documents that support the proposal and application. Citations As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used in composing your proposal. SUMMARY Successful, qualitative research proposals should communicate the researcher's knowledge of the field and method and convey the emergent nature of the qualitative design. Financial support and sponsorship Nil.
Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. McGranaghan M. Guidelines on Writing a Research Proposal. Research proposal writing: Breaking the myth. Niger J Med. Saunderlin G. Writing a research proposal: The critical first step for successful clinical research. Gastroenterol Nurs. Klopper H. The qualitative research proposal. Writing proposals for research funds. Burns N, Grove SK. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; Sandelowski M, Barroso J.
Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project. Qual Health Res. Krathwohl DR. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. Highlight your most significant points and think about how and where you should present these in your review. It is important that you explain the design of your project in a clear and logical way. Above all, it needs to establish that these tasks constitute the most effective way of exploring the research problem.
It is therefore necessary to:. Specify the particular activities that you will undertake and show how they will contribute to the investigation of your research problem e. Finally, anticipate any potential barriers that you will face in carrying out your research design.
No method is perfect, so you need to describe what the shortcomings will be and explain how you will address them. You might find it useful to organise your responses into a table, mind-map, or flow-chart see example below. Many researchers prefer this approach as it allows them to visualise their project in its entirety, and draw connections between data and research goals that they may not have previously considered. The following example shows a partially constructed mind-map for a thesis on media representations of the London Riots.
It does not show a complete study design for this project. It illustrates the advantages of mapping out goals, sources and theories as a means of planning your study design. The timeline demonstrates to the reader that your project can be completed within the period of candidature. The timeline should consist of a series of goals that you will need to meet in order to complete all aspects of your thesis, from initial research to the final editing, with an expected date of completion for each step.
It should also contain a statement of the progress that you have made to date. The timeline should also factor in other research related activities such as conferences and publications if applicable. Conclude your research proposal by stating your expected outcomes.
At this stage in the research process, what arguments and conclusions do you expect to reach? Your reader will understand that these are projected outcomes based on the extent of research at the time of writing, and that they will almost certainly change in the light of further research. It is essential, however, that you give your reader a sense of what conclusions may be drawn.
This will allow your reader to further assess the significance and validity of your project. It will also indicate to your reader that you have thought ahead and considered the potential outcomes and implications of your research. To avoid repetition with the description of your research aims and significance earlier in the proposal, focus on how you envisage your research will contribute to debates and trends in your field.
What impact might your findings have on how the problem is perceived? What impact might your methods have on how research is conducted in the future? Miner, J. Models of Proposal Planning and Writing. Skip to content Skip to navigation. We will then break down the research proposal into its core components and examine them individually What is the purpose of a research proposal? The purpose of a research proposal can be summarised as follows: To propose a research project that will result in a significant contribution to knowledge.
To formulate a detailed plan of the project including methodological approach and theoretical framework. To ensure that the proposed research is achievable within the required time and with the available resources. To demonstrate that you have adequate expertise and experience to undertake the project. Which skills are required for a research proposal?
These skills can be grouped into three clusters: Subject knowledge and research skills The proposal gives you an opportunity to exhibit your mastery of subject knowledge and familiarity with current research trends. Critical thinking skills A good research proposal displays evidence of advanced analysis, evaluation and synthesis skills, as well as creativity and the ability to combine vertical and lateral thinking. Communication skills The proposal displays your ability to express yourself in precise and concise language.
Content and structure The required content and structure of a research proposal varies from one field of study to another. Zeroing in on the target It is useful to think of a research proposal as an exercise in zeroing in from the big picture the broad academic field to a specific target your project. We will now individually examine the core components of a research proposal.
Writing the introductory section Background You will need to introduce the research topic to your reader and explain why it is significant. Significance Why is this topic significant to you? From identifying a gap to constructing a problem Identifying gaps in the academic literature in your field is essential to creating new knowledge.
Activity Assemble a draft introductory section. Adapted from Miner, J. Models of Proposal Planning and Writing pp. Praegar, Westport: CT. What is a good research question? In general terms, however, a good research question should be: Relevant: It must clearly relate to the problems or issues that the project seeks to address. Important : It should address a key problem in the field see From identifying a gap to constructing a problem above. Clear : It should be expressed using concise language and contain no ambiguity.
Precise : What is being investigated should be clearly specified. Researchable : The information and sources required to answer the question must exist and you must be able to access them with the exception of data that you will generate yourself through surveys, experiments, etc. Constructing a research question The wording of your research question or questions is important because it will direct your approach and writing and help to shape the feedback that you receive from readers of your proposal.
However, the following general points can be made: How and why questions are usually preferred as they generate analytical rather than descriptive findings. The question should be worded in such a way that a number of different responses would be possible. The wording should be neutral in tone. Avoid value judgements or untested assumptions. The wording should include the key concepts and relationships that you have identified.
Complete the following activity to see examples of these and other points. Activity Below you will see examples of three different research questions on the topic of national identity construction in Kosovo, which declared its independence in Activity Interrogate your research question After the initial drafting of your research question you should interrogate it to highlight strengths and weaknesses in your thinking or wording.
Write responses to the following questions: Does this research question interest me? Will it sustain my interest? Does this question help to address a significant research problem? Has this question already been answered by others? If so, how will my response differ?
Is the question too easy to answer? Is the answer too obvious? Can the question be approached from different angles? Will this question allow me to generate a strong and interesting position or findings? At this point in time what hypothesis would I make in response to the question? Does the question have an appropriate scope?
Is the specified content too broad or too narrow? Is the question researchable? What kind of information and sources will I need to answer the question? Am I able to access this information? Will I need to generate my own data? What about the ethics of the question?
Does it entail risks for the researcher or if relevant the participants? You will now be in a position to refine your wording or, if required, reformulate your question. The purpose of a literature review for a research proposal The literature review surveys key academic works in your field of research, such as books, refereed journal articles, and postgraduate theses.
Planning and writing a literature review There are three main considerations when writing a literature review for a research proposal: Focus : A literature review for a research project should give an accurate picture of the general field, but rather than discuss every text in detail it should focus on works that are directly related to your specific topic.
It is usually best to focus on the most prominent and recent contributions to the topic. Structure : Rather than discuss each selected text separately, a literature review should be organised around key similarities, differences, and other points that you want to make about the development of academic writing on the topic. Search for a review article on the topic a kind of literature review found in refereed journals and study the literature reviews contained in recently published books and journal articles on the topic.
Consider how these authors categorise and evaluate the literature. This will have an influence on how you select and critique the literature. It is therefore important that you check the specific requirements of your Faculty or School. Activity Brainstorming for your literature review A useful way to generate ideas for your literature review is to brainstorm the key scholars, texts, arguments, sources and methods that are related to your research topic. Extensive responses are often a useful way of thinking through a question or issue that you find challenging: Have scholars attempted to address the research gap or problem that I intend to explore?
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