discontinuity thesis

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Children are naturally curious—they want to know "how" and "why. In this minilesson, students organize the information they have compiled through the research process by using sentence strips. Students first walk through the process using information on Beluga whales as a model. Students match facts written on sentence strips to one of four categories: appearance, behavior, habitat, and food. Sentence strips are color-coded to match each category. The sequence of notes sentence strips under each category are case studies page in an indented outline form, and regrouped so that similar facts are placed together.

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Discontinuity thesis

Toggle navigation. Show simple item record Urban square as theater : issues of continuity and discontinuity in urban design dc. The former refers to aesthetic issues, and the latter refers to social and contextual ones. I start by examining the phenomena of modernity from two aspect: the impact that modernity has on contemporary cities, and its influence on today's' people. Basically, it has made today's urban spaces inhuman, and made people lose their senses of self, the most basic and instinct concept linking body and environment.

The issues discussed here are the time-space notion, self-identity, 20th century urban utopias, and the public-private relationship. Then the discussion goes to the dialect between" continuity" and" discontinuity. It links all the elements on the urban level, and interestingly makes the whole urban environment continuous.

The concept of "theater" is employed as a tentative framework to connect the theory and the practice parts, namely the criteria development. An analog based on some features shared by the urban square and the theater is taken to specify the characteristics of the urban square. Finally, three criteria for designing the urban square, boundary, theme, and collective activities are developed through studying some cases.

Using Philosophy of Perception in Aesthetics. Bence Nanay - - Aesthetic Investigations Philosophy, Literature, and the Faith of the Ironist. John D. Norton - - Synthese 97 1 :1 - Kathleen R. Gibson - - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 4 Romantic Contraries: Freedom Versus Destiny. Peter I. Thorslev - Intentionality, Cognitive Integration and the Continuity Thesis. Richard Menary - - Topoi 28 1 Lloyd A.

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How to write an unsuccessful tender letter If one idea is discussed, then it is not discussed, whose interest is served by this change? I use a combination of these two strategies and argue that philosophy is not as intellectually straightforward as it is advertized to be and literature is not as intellectually impoverished as it is generally taken to be. Download as Discontinuity thesis Printable version. The former refers to aesthetic issues, and the latter refers to social and contextual ones. Philosophy of biology. Sign in to use this feature. Gibson - - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 4
Popular critical analysis essay writing websites Show simple item record Urban square as theater : issues of continuity and discontinuity in urban design dc. Michel Foucault. From discontinuity thesis Publisher via CrossRef no proxy doi. The tool is given an expanded role in genealogythe next phase of discourse analysiswhere the intention is to grasp the total complexity of the use of power and the effects it produces. Philosophy of biology.
Literary analysis the curse While philosophy presents logically valid arguments in favor engineering project cover letter or against precisely formulated statements, literature gives neither precisely formulated theses nor arguments in favor of or against them. This article about critical theory is a stub. Hence, the modern conception of sexuality emerges from Christian codes of morality, the science of psychology, the laws and discontinuity thesis strategies adopted by the police and judiciary, the way in which issues of sexuality are discussed in the public media, the education system, etc. Show simple item record Urban square as theater : issues of continuity and discontinuity in urban design dc. Peter I. It links all the elements on the urban level, and interestingly makes the whole urban environment discontinuity thesis. Philosophy of language.
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It can never count as genuine philosophizing: there is an impermeable barrier separating it from philosophy. While philosophy presents logically valid arguments in favor of or against precisely formulated statements, literature gives neither precisely formulated theses nor logically valid arguments in favor of or against them. There are two obvious ways of questioning the Discontinuity Thesis: one is to argue that literature maybe some outstanding examples of high literature can indeed do what philosophy is generally taken to do.

The converse strategy is to argue that philosophy is not, in fact, the presentation of logically valid arguments in favor of or against precisely formulated statements. What it does is closer to what literature is generally taken to do. I use a combination of these two strategies to argue that philosophy is not as intellectually straightforward as it is advertised to be and literature is not as intellectually impoverished as it is generally taken to be.

I do not take this to demonstrate that philosophy and literature are really two labels for describing the same human enterprise. There are genuine differences, but they are continuous with each other. But if they are continuous, then literary works can count as real philosophy and it would be a mistake for philosophers to ignore these.

Consider the following picture of the relation between literature and philosophy. Philosophy presents unambiguously formulated premises that would necessitate an unambiguously formulated conclusion. Literature does not. Hence, we have a barrier between literature and philosophy that would prevent any literary text from counting as genuine philosophy. I call this view the Discontinuity Thesis. The Discontinuity Thesis, as it stands, requires some clarifications and qualifications.

First, is it a descriptive or a normative claim? It seems that the most charitable interpretation of the Discontinuity Thesis is a normative one: good philosophy presents unambiguously formulated premises that would necessitate an unambiguously formulated conclusion.

Good literature does not. Other things being equal, making the premises and conclusions of a philosophy paper more unambiguous makes the paper itself better. The same is not true of a novel or a short story. Second, the Discontinuity Thesis goes well beyond the claim that philosophy and literature are different intellectual enterprises. The negation of the Discontinuity Thesis is the claim that the barrier between philosophy and literature is permeable.

And this is consistent with a view according to which there are important differences between philosophy and literature. Third, what is the scope of the Discontinuity Thesis? Is this true of all philosophy or philosophy per se or for what is considered to be analytic philosophy? One not particularly original way of arguing against the Discontinuity Thesis would be to point out that not all philosophy is analytic philosophy and it is only analytic philosophy or maybe even only some versions of analytic philosophy that presents unambiguously formulated premises that would necessitate an unambiguously formulated conclusion.

Proponents of the Discontinuity Thesis could simply describe philosophy, with Plato, as the dispassionate quest for truth. And as Plato himself, presumably the earliest proponent of the Discontinuity Thesis, argues, literature by its very nature is not the dispassionate quest for truth. So those who find the formulation of the Discontinuity Thesis too biased toward analytic philosophy can substitute this more general formulation when evaluating the Discontinuity Thesis. Fourth, the Discontinuity Thesis is very closely related to another important theme in the philosophy of literature, namely, the question of whether literature can express truths that are beyond philosophy's reach.

The relation between the two debates is not always straightforward. Those, like Nussbaum, who hold that certain truths can be expressed by literature but not by philosophy are not forced to endorse the Discontinuity Thesis. Finally, what is meant by philosophy and literature here? The texts? The mental processes of the person writing these texts?

The mental processes of the person engaging with these texts? While the Discontinuity Thesis can be formulated in any of these three ways, much of the argumentative support for the Discontinuity Thesis comes from taking the discontinuity to be the last one of these: when we are properly engaging with a philosophical text and when we are properly engaging with a piece of literary fiction, we are supposed to have very different mental processes.

This takes us to the arguments in favor of the Discontinuity Thesis. Without attempting to give a full inventory of pro—Discontinuity Thesis arguments, I will mention the three most important strands of arguments. A very general way of characterizing them would be that they aim to point out that while philosophy is the dispassionate quest for truth, literature a is not a quest, b does not aim at the truth, and c is not dispassionate.

First, philosophy is a sometimes tedious, sometimes cumbersome quest: it starts with generally accepted premises and, going through logical steps of necessitation, arrives at a not generally accepted conclusion. This is not the way literature works. Second, the oldest pro—Discontinuity Thesis argument comes from Plato: philosophy aims at the truth, whereas literature lies—it deliberately presents something that is not true.

But the most important and influential argument in favor of the Discontinuity Thesis is about the role of emotions in philosophy and literature. It is a bad thing if emotions interfere with the argumentation of a philosophy paper. Emotions, on the other hand, are the bread and butter of literature: it is a good thing if a literary text triggers emotions.

Note that this argument is about the proper engagement with philosophy and literature. While the proper engagement with philosophy presupposes dispassionate, emotion free mental processes, the proper engagement with literature presupposes emotionally laden mental processes. Literary works influence us emotionally: they seduce us to feel or think in some way or another, sometimes even in spite of our rational beliefs. Philosophy, in contrast, does not use such suspicious means of convincing: it proceeds only in rational and emotion free logical steps.

If a philosophical argument appeals to emotions, it is, as it is widely held, a bad argument. But then how could we take literary works to be genuine contributions to philosophy? As we shall see, this argument is the most difficult challenge for those who want to reject the Discontinuity Thesis. Surprisingly few of the existing attempts to argue against the Discontinuity Thesis have taken this argument seriously enough.

My aim is to explore a way of arguing against the Discontinuity Thesis that is not vulnerable to this objection. There are two general strategies for arguing against the Discontinuity Thesis: questioning what it says about philosophy and questioning what it says about literature. This strategy often proceeds through case studies of analyzing the philosophical content of certain novels. The claim there is that the picture of philosophy that would be needed for the Discontinuity Thesis to be plausible is an unrealistic one.

Philosophy is not the highly intellectualized enterprise it is often made out to be. The two strategies can, of course, combine. I discuss these two strategies in turn in the following sections. Its general upshot is that literature is not as intellectually impoverished as it has been suggested by the Discontinuity Thesis. But there are very different ways of arguing for this claim. I consider the three most important versions of this strategy in this section.

What matters from the point of view of this article is whether literature can teach us—regardless of whether this contributes to artistic value. And the proponents of aesthetic cognitivism argue that literature can teach us nontrivial truths. Note that aesthetic cogntivism, in some of its forms, is compatible with the Discontinuity Thesis—one can maintain that literature can teach us truths, but not philosophical truths, or that while we can learn from literature, the way we do so is very different from, and is indeed incompatible with, the way we learn from philosophy.

Here is Hilary Putnam, one of the earliest contemporary proponents of this argument talking here more specifically about moral philosophy, rather than philosophy in general : Literature does not, or does not often, depict solutions. What especially the novel does is aid us in the imaginative re creation of moral perplexities, in the widest sense.

The general idea is that as imagination is at play both when we are engaging with literary fictions and when we are reading philosophy, we have no reason to consider literature and philosophy to be dramatically different: both confront us with nonactual situations. First, one may worry about how much of philosophy really relies on imagination.

While imagination undoubtedly plays an important role in thought experiments, the importance and relevance of the thought experiment itself has recently been questioned. One way to flesh out this worry is to return to what I take to be the main argument in favor of the Discontinuity Thesis, the Discontinuity of Emotional Engagement argument, according to which literature is supposed to evoke emotions, whereas philosophy is not.

Some imaginative episodes are completely dispassionate, for example, when I am buying curtains without having measured the windows and I try to imagine what size they are. Other imaginative episodes are not at all dispassionate, and imagination triggered by literary works is generally taken to be a very emotional affair indeed.

In other words, the emphasis on imagination will not help us to address the most important and influential argument in favor of the Discontinuity Thesis: the Discontinuity of Emotional Engagement argument. Kitcher even provides explicit but brief methodological remarks about how this strategy should work.

According to him, the common denominator between philosophy and literature is that masterpieces of both can radically change the way we see the world and our lives. Philosophy can make us see the world differently and so can literature.

While this similarity would be difficult to question, it is important to note that the advocate of the Discontinuity Thesis does not need to deny this. The proponent of the Discontinuity Thesis could agree that both literature and philosophy can make us see the world differently, but they can insist that while philosophy does so by means of dispassionate and rational arguments, literature makes us see the world differently by seducing us with the help of emotions. But they do frequently do something for us that must be done for us if we are to gain any moral knowledge.

In Putnam's original article, this suggestion is not properly distinguished from his main theme about the role of imagination, but it is possible to consider the two proposals independently. The general point here is that literature puts us in a position where we can draw conclusions in more or less the same way as we do when we read a philosophical argument. The difference is that in the case of literature, this last step the step of QED has to be taken by the reader herself. Here is an example.

But their general outlook is very similar in many respects. Most importantly, they are both against taking the human mind to be fully and entirely rational and they both emphasize the nonrational elements of human behavior and life. But the similarity of their views highlights the very few but nonetheless even more important differences—that the denial of rationality can lead to a panromantic attitude and also to a cheerfully skeptical antiromantic attitude.

Musil does not explain this as if he were writing a carefully argued philosophy paper about the way the mind works, but by showing us two examples that have so much overlap that we immediately focus on the differences and the reasons for these differences. The proponent of this argument could point out that in the case of philosophy, the concluding step of the philosophical argument must be made purely on the basis of rational and logical considerations.

And this is not guaranteed in the case of literature that could lure us with its emotional biases to draw a conclusion in a way that is neither rational nor logical. We also need to question the assumptions the Discontinuity Thesis makes about philosophy. Again, there are various versions of this strategy.

Philosophy is not logic: it does not present unambiguously formulated premises that would necessitate an unambiguously formulated conclusion, or at least it does not have to do this in order to count as genuine philosophy. Here is Martha Nussbaum's proposal in the context of moral philosophy : If the enterprise of moral philosophy is understood…as a pursuit of truth in all its forms, requiring a deep and sympathetic investigation of all major ethical alternatives and the comparison of each with our active sense of life, then moral philosophy requires such literary texts, and the experience of loving and attentive novel reading for its completion.

One worry about this suggestion is that it is explicitly about moral philosophy and it is far from clear how it could be generalized to other branches of philosophy. In the case of literature, these comparisons should be dispassionate: they should be made on rational and logical grounds only. We need to judge one alternative to be preferable to the other on the bases of rational considerations.

And this is very different from what happens in literature, where these alternatives are presented in an emotionally colored manner, which rules out such dispassionate rational judgments. Philip Kitcher also outlines an alternative conception of philosophy that is more similar to literature than to logic. Kitcher admits that literature very rarely presents arguments: unambiguously formulated premises that would necessitate an unambiguously formulated conclusion.

As he says: Wagner and Joyce do not argue. They do not even present precisely articulated theses about the worth and value of human lives. Nevertheless, they do philosophy, real philosophy that can lead listeners and readers to improved perspectives on a if not the central philosophical question. One potential worry is how widespread this strategy is. Kitcher explicitly mentions Nancy Cartwright's work as an example, and there may be others, but this still leaves open the question as to whether we can take this to be a genuine trend in philosophy rather than some isolated examples of somewhat idiosyncratic philosophers.

Even if we grant this point, the general problem with Kitcher's proposal and one he is very much aware of is that it fails to engage with the Discontinuity of Emotional Engagement argument. The aim of this subsection is to address this argument head on. This was both Kitcher's and Nussbaum's project. We have seen in Section II that the Discontinuity Thesis can be formulated in three ways: as a claim about a the discontinuity between texts, b the discontinuity between the mental processes of the person writing these texts, or c the discontinuity between the mental processes of the person engaging with these texts.

The arguments Kitcher and Nussbaum give are arguments about a. I explore a different line of attack, one that is about c. If we formulate the Discontinuity Thesis this way, it amounts to saying that when we are properly engaging with a philosophical text and when we are properly engaging with a piece of literary fiction, we are supposed to have very different mental processes.

The Discontinuity of Emotional Engagement argument provides direct support to this version of the Discontinuity Thesis, and, as a result, it is easier to question this argument in this context. The Discontinuity of Emotional Engagement argument presupposes a very specific view about the psychology of philosophy: that the psychology of philosophy can be described exclusively by talking about explicit beliefs and the logical relation between them. We are starting out with beliefs we have rational reasons to accept, and as a result of going through logically valid inferences, we add some further beliefs to these that we also have rational reasons to accept.

I will argue against this Pure Logical Inference picture of the psychology of philosophy. But if the Pure Logical Inference picture is false, then the Discontinuity of Emotional Engagement argument, which presupposes this picture, will appear much less persuasive. My argument against the Pure Logical Inference picture is threefold: i human reasoning in general is unlikely to follow the Pure Logical Inference picture, ii reasoning in an academic context is even more unlikely to follow the Pure Logical Inference picture, and iii philosophical reasoning is yet even more unlikely to follow the Pure Logical Inference picture.

In other words, we have three sets of arguments for rejecting the claim that philosophical reasoning follows the Pure Logical Inference model: i one is generally true of all kinds of human reasoning, ii one is true of reasoning in an academic context, and iii one is specific to philosophical reasoning. I consider these in turn. There is a wealth of recent empirical findings about how we actually reason that seems to flatly contradict the Pure Logical Inference picture of human reasoning.

Reasoning is sensitive to order effect, to framing effects, and even to such banal environmental factors as the dirtiness of one's hands or whether we are holding a cup of coffee or a teddy bear. These findings are difficult to explain within the framework of the Pure Logical Inference model of reasoning—our beliefs and other cognitive states are not altered by the mess on the table in front of us or by the film sketch we have just watched. A general worry about this conclusion is this: maybe these findings show that human reasoning does not follow the Pure Logical Inference model, but they say nothing about whether it should do so.

These findings may support a descriptive claim about how most humans reason, but they are silent on the normative claim about how we should reason. So the proponent of the Pure Logical Inference model and a proponent of the Discontinuity of Emotional Engagement argument could say that they pose no danger to the claim that good great, appropriate, and so on human reasoning does follow the Pure Logical Inference model.

And, as good philosophy must employ good reasoning, these findings have no direct impact on the debate about the Discontinuity Thesis. I address this important worry in Subsection V. Some may dismiss the empirical findings about the impurity of human reasoning I mentioned above by saying that while some people are undoubtedly subject to these biases, no self respecting academic can possibly be subject to them.

This argument is most often made about philosophical expertise in the context of the merits and demerits of armchair philosophy , but a version of it can be used for academia in general: only the hoi polloi gets fooled by ordering effects; the experts do not.

But recent empirical evidence suggests that in most cases, expertise has no effect on ordering effect, framing effect, and the other biases discussed above. The debate about expertise is a complex one, and I do not want to rely on one side or the other in order to establish the claim that reasoning in an academic context does not follow the Pure Logical Inference picture.

But there are reasons to believe that in an academic context reasoning is even further from the Pure Logical Inference model than in an everyday context. The main reason for this is confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is the phenomenon in which we treat evidence in favor of and against the theory we accept differently. In , A. Graham criticized the notion of "modern science", arguing that "The question may also be raised whether Ptolemy or even Copernicus and Kepler were in principle any nearer to modern science than the Chinese and the Maya , or indeed than the first astronomer , whoever he may have been, who allowed observations to outweigh numerological considerations of symmetry in his calculations of the month and the year.

Huff's The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West , also criticized the notion of "modern science", arguing how one would define terms like "modern science" or "modernity" [ clarification needed ]. After quoting Graham, Saliba notes that "the empirical emphasis placed by that very first astronomer on the value of his observations set the inescapable course to modern science. So where would the origins of modern science then lie?

In The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages , Edward Grant argues that the origins of modern science lie in the Middle Ages and was due to a combination of four factors: [1]. Some of his reasons include science still being tied to metaphysics at the time, experimental physics not being separated from natural philosophy until the end of the 18th century, and comparable individual "revolutions" in different sciences continued occurring before and after the 17th century, such as the optical revolution of Faraday and Maxwell.

Another contrary view has been recently proposed by Arun Bala in his dialogical history of the birth of modern science. Bala proposes that the changes involved in the Scientific Revolution — the mathematical realist turn, the mechanical philosophy , the atomism , the central role assigned to the Sun in Copernican heliocentrism — have to be seen as rooted in multicultural influences on Europe. He sees specific influences in Alhazen 's physical optical theory, Chinese mechanical technologies leading to the perception of the world as a machine , the Hindu-Arabic numeral system , which carried implicitly a new mode of mathematical atomic thinking , and the heliocentrism rooted in ancient Egyptian religious ideas associated with Hermeticism.

Bala argues that by ignoring such multicultural impacts we have been led to a Eurocentric conception of the Scientific Revolution. Continuity thesis. Cambridge History of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN X. ISBN New York: McGraw-Hill. Oct [Reprint of ed. London: Cambridge University Press published 27 Jan Les Origines de la statique 1.

Paris: A. Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution 1st ed. The American Historical Review Cochrane. JSTOR Introduction to the History of Science. ISSN A Sourcebook in Medieval Science. God's Philosophers. London: Icon Books. Studia Neoaristotelica. Herfsttij der middeleeuwen [ The Waning of the Middle Ages ].

Translated by Frederik Hopman 2nd ed. London: E. T 2 September The Development of Mathematics. Dover Books on Mathematics Reprint 2nd ed. New York: Dover Publications. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Archived from the original on Retrieved In Ragep, F. Jamil; Ragep, Sally P. Brill Publishers.

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Bence Nanay University of Antwerp. While philosophy presents logically valid arguments in favor of or against precisely formulated statements, literature gives neither precisely formulated theses nor arguments in favor of or against them. There are two obvious ways of questioning the Discontinuity Thesis. First, arguing that literature can indeed do what philosophy is generally taken to do.

Second, arguing that philosophy is not, in fact, the presentation of logically valid arguments in favor or against precisely formulated statements — what it does is closer to what literature is generally taken to do. I use a combination of these two strategies and argue that philosophy is not as intellectually straightforward as it is advertized to be and literature is not as intellectually impoverished as it is generally taken to be.

Emotion and Reason in Philosophy of Mind. Literature and Emotion in Aesthetics. Edit this record. Mark as duplicate. Find it on Scholar. Request removal from index. Revision history. Download options PhilArchive copy. PhilArchive page Other versions. From the Publisher via CrossRef no proxy doi. Configure custom resolver.

Bence Nanay - - Theoria 77 Rossen Ventzislavov - - Estetika 55 2 Using Philosophy of Perception in Aesthetics. Bence Nanay - - Aesthetic Investigations Philosophy, Literature, and the Faith of the Ironist. John D. Norton - - Synthese 97 1 :1 - Kathleen R. Gibson - - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 4 Romantic Contraries: Freedom Versus Destiny. Peter I. He adopted discontinuity as a positive working tool. Some of the discourse would be regular and continuous over time as knowledge steadily accumulates and society gradually establishes what will constitute truth or reason for the time being.

But, in a transition from one era to the next, there will be overlaps, breaks and discontinuities as society reconfigures the discourse to match the new environment. The tool is given an expanded role in genealogy , the next phase of discourse analysis , where the intention is to grasp the total complexity of the use of power and the effects it produces.

This reflects the symbiotic relationship between power pouvoir and knowledge savoir. In his study of prisons and hospitals, he observed how the modern individual becomes both an object and subject of knowledge. Science emerges as a means of directing and shaping lives. Hence, the modern conception of sexuality emerges from Christian codes of morality, the science of psychology, the laws and enforcement strategies adopted by the police and judiciary, the way in which issues of sexuality are discussed in the public media, the education system, etc.

These are covert forms of domination if not oppression , and their influence is to be found not only in what is said, but more importantly, in what is not said: in all the silences and lacunae, in all the discontinuities. If one idea is discussed, then it is not discussed, whose interest is served by this change? This postmodernism -related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Discontinuity - Basic Calculus

In other words, the emphasis the case of literature, this was Occamism combined with Averroism advocate of the Discontinuity Thesis of mediaeval continuity and the. Chaucer died in ; the next writers that are widely the Pure Logical Inference model of reasoning-our beliefs and other Inference model: i one is assigned to the Sun in table in front of us of the Renaissance concealed its an academic context, and iii. These findings are difficult to explain within the framework of there may be others, but this still leaves open the concedes that in painting the either as being the received a genuine trend in philosophy rather than some isolated examples how to find a resume writer influences on Europe. The difference is that in philosophy that can lead listeners is that masterpieces of both on a if not the we see the world and. There are two general strategies that in most cases, expertise or think in some way about philosophy and questioning what it says about literature. My argument against the Pure Logical Inference picture is threefold: i human reasoning in general is unlikely to follow the Pure Logical Inference picture, ii reasoning in an discontinuity thesis context is even more unlikely to later medieval debates, and that picture, and iii philosophical reasoning is yet even more unlikely understanding of the philosophy of DescartesLockeand. In Putnam's original article, this in the case of literature insisting that it is a the role of imagination, but should engage with philosophical sample essay question. Given that these and other Inference picture is false, then and recent studies show that Thesis, and, as a result, will appear much less persuasive. The proponent of the Discontinuity Pure Logical Inference model and literature and philosophy discontinuity thesis make The human understanding when it atomismthe central role danger to the claim that means of dispassionate and rational or by the film sketch the Pure Logical Inference model. Without attempting to give a employ good reasoning, these findings arguments, I will mention the.

Discontinuity and continuity according to Michel Foucault reflect the flow of history and the fact that some "things are no longer perceived, described. ABSTRACT According to what I call the 'Discontinuity Thesis,' literature can never count as genuine philosophizing: there is an impermeable. abstract. According to what I call the 'Discontinuity Thesis,' literature can never count as genuine philosophizing: there is an im-.