literature review on health safety and welfare of employees

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Children are naturally curious—they want to know "how" and "why. In this minilesson, students organize the information they have compiled through the research process by using sentence strips. Students first walk through the process using information on Beluga whales as a model. Students match facts written on sentence strips to one of four categories: appearance, behavior, habitat, and food. Sentence strips are color-coded to match each category. The sequence of notes sentence strips under each category are case studies page in an indented outline form, and regrouped so that similar facts are placed together.

Literature review on health safety and welfare of employees daft punk homework rym

Literature review on health safety and welfare of employees

The objective is for businesses to clearly understand that punishment and other consequences of non-compliance are a result of their own choices and actions and not because the regulator is being heavy-handed. Intervention Strategies in the Regulatory Literature Based on an extensive review of the literature, Gunningham identified seven distinctive though often mutually compatible regulatory enforcement and compliance strategies, summarised as follows: Advice and Persuasion: Negotiation, information provision and education characterize this strategy.

The threat of enforcement remains, so far as possible, in the background, and only to be actually invoked in extreme cases where the regulated entity remains uncooperative and intransigent. Deterrence: This strategy is accusatory and adversarial. Energy is devoted to detecting violations, establishing guilt and penalizing violators for past wrongdoing. It assumes that profit-seeking firms take costly measures to comply with public policy goals only when they are specifically required to do so by law and when they believe that legal noncompliance is likely to be detected and harshly penalized.

Responsive Regulation: This strategy is premised on the view that the best outcomes will be achieved if inspectors adapt to or are responsive to the actions of regulatees. Regulators should explore a range of approaches to encourage capacity building but must be prepared to escalate up a pyramid of sanctions when earlier steps are unsuccessful. Escalation occurs only where dialogue fails, and regulators de-escalate when met with a positive response.

Indeed, it is preferable to escalate up a pyramid of supports, praising and rewarding good behaviour and only resorting to the pyramid of sanctions where such behaviour is not forthcoming. Smart Regulation: This strategy is a form of regulatory pluralism that embraces flexible, imaginative, and innovative forms of social control, harnessing businesses and third parties acting as surrogate regulators in addition to direct government intervention.

The underlying rationale is that, in the majority of circumstances, the use of multiple rather than single policy instruments, and a broader range of regulatory actors, will produce better regulation. As such, it argues that the implementation of complementary combinations of instruments and participants tailored to meet the imperatives of particular issues, can accomplish public policy goals more effectively, with greater social acceptance and at less cost to the state.

This implies requiring or encouraging enterprises to put in place their own systems of internal control and management via systems, plans, and risk management more generally. The goal is to induce companies themselves to acquire the specialized skills and knowledge to self- regulate, subject to external scrutiny.

Criteria Strategies: These strategies provide inspectors and other decision-makers with a list of criteria they should consider in arriving at a decision in any given case. There is no prescriptive formula and which mechanism s to be used in any particular case will depend on the circumstances. Gunningham argues that rather than seeking to identify a single intervention strategy, what an excellent regulator needs to do is to consciously apply different intervention strategies according to their suitability to particular regulatory contexts.

Different types of regulatees confront different external pressures and have different skills, capabilities and motivations. The economic and social risks posed by different operations are also intrinsically different. Accordingly, there is no single formula for achieving regulatory excellence. Although excellent regulators will apply different intervention strategies in different circumstances, there are nevertheless numerous signposts that can steer all regulators towards the goal of regulatory excellence.

Almond and Esbester trace the historical trajectory of health and safety regulation to the political and economic shifts taking place over the past two centuries: Health and safety has long been a key feature of the modern welfare state and contemporary industrial relations; it formed a central part of the protectionist and paternalist reform movement of the nineteenth century that sought to address the social costs of the industrial revolution Creating robust health and safety systems has been high on the political agenda of post- industrial societies in recent decades.

Although the general framework has endured in the UK and other common law countries, Almond and Esbester suggest that the social and political consensus on the regulation of health and safety has been changing in recent decades. The authors trace this shift to the implementation of neoliberal policies and the ideological rejection of regulation and welfarism that has become gradually more entrenched since the late s Perez and Howard, , Harvey, Moreover, workplace technologies have changed dramatically, giving rise to new health and safety issues that pose significant challenges for regulators and organisations Almond and Esbester However, a poor health and safety record, low worker participation in OSH and ultimately, the Pike River disaster, which claimed the lives of 29 men, demonstrated a clear need for reform.

Two reports were produced in the wake of the accident; one by the Royal Commission and the other by the Independent Taskforce on Workplace Health and Safety. In other words, the shift was from a system that told duty-holders what to do and how, to one that specified the outcome to be pursued ensuring health, safety and welfare of employees and others but left determination of how to fulfil this to duty-holders to decide with due reference to industry standards and best practice, Approved Codes of Practice, and other forms of guidance.

See Robens Moreover, Sissons argues that some of the changes made by the HSWA to existing health and safety legislation substantially compromise its effectiveness The late s and s were a period of fiscal discipline, frozen budgets and staff cuts across the public sector. No additional funding was made available to support a comprehensive implementation of the new Act, including the development of adequate levels of supporting regulations, approved codes of practice ACoPs and guidance, as well as inspectorate capabilities.

The HSE Act was developed in an era of deregulation and a growing ethos of business self- regulation. Labour market liberalisation in the s and s resulted in a sustained fall in union membership and growth in casual, part-time and short-term employment relationships…. It is likely that this factor influenced omissions from the HSE Act, including the failure to establish a tripartite body and to set obligations requiring employers to have formal worker-participation systems.

Confusing regulation 2. A weak regulator 3. Poor worker engagement 4. Inadequate leadership 5. Capacity and capability shortcomings 6. Inadequate incentives 7. Poor data and measurement 8. Risk-tolerant culture 9. Hidden occupational health Major hazard facilities Particular challenges to SMEs PCBU person conducting business undertaking risk management.

This is a completely new health and safety duty on senior leaders and directors. Worker participation. The new act strengthens the ability of workers to engage and participate in health and safety interventions. Across the international literature, along with strong leadership and management commitment, worker engagement is taken as a prerequisite for a well-performing health and safety system Pashorina-Nichols Nevertheless, Sissons 65 argues that the HSWA does not go far enough in ensuring that worker engagement, representation and participation is enforced, particularly for SMEs.

Having introduced the topic of occupational health and safety at local and global levels, the next section will discuss some of the key factors in occupational health and safety, as identified in the literature. Much of the literature speaks directly to the systemic weaknesses identified by the Independent Taskforce, and the following sections should be read with these in mind.

Key factors and trends in workplace health and safety 2. An ample and growing body of research recognises the centrality of culture as a key factor in health, safety and well-being at work. Understanding safety culture requires understanding specific organisational and larger sociocultural and economic contexts. In a report following the disaster, the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group INSAG identified the lack of safety culture, both within the Chernobyl plant and at a national level, as contributing to the incident.

The notion of safety culture sparked great interest and has since become a key concept in OHS. While definitions and conceptualisations vary, there is general agreement that safety culture is embedded in larger organisational culture. A strong safety culture is thus an organisational culture that places a high priority on safety-related beliefs, values and attitudes Cooper, , Guldenmund, , Short et al. Although there are many competing definitions of culture, a common understanding points to the full range of learned behavioural patterns, including the shared habits, practices, communication, knowledge, beliefs, moral and aesthetic standards of a community.

Such designs allow individuals to participate effectively in social life and maintain group membership. Despite varying conceptions, there is a consensus in the literature that organisational culture is always situated in and reflects broader cultural frameworks. Another widely used definition is provided by Schein , who argues that there is no firm distinction between organisational culture and culture as such.

According to this conception, organisational and safety culture follow the basic logic of culture in general. This is reflected in a more recent definition by Schneider et al. Approaching culture as both a uniting and dividing force has led researchers to explore the relationship between culture, power and leadership Lok and Crawford, , Schein, As Blewit observes, such shifts in the theoretical development of organisational culture may have a positive application for improving health, safety and well-being at work.

In a systematic literature review of definitions of safety culture and safety climate suitable for a regulator, Vu and De Cieri identified one hundred and eight existing definitions. It refers to the extent to which individuals and groups will commit to personal responsibility for safety; act to preserve, enhance and communicate safety concerns; strive to actively learn, adapt and modify both individual and organisational behaviour based on lessons learned from mistakes; and be rewarded in a manner consistent with these values.

Safety climate: The temporal state measure of safety culture, subject to commonalities among individual perceptions of the organization. It is therefore situationally based, refers to the perceived state of safety at a particular place at a particular time, is relatively unstable, and subject to change depending on the features of the current environment or prevailing conditions.

While these definitions are useful, they have been subject to critique on the grounds that they make assumptions that culture is always unified, shared and instrumental in nature. As noted above, more recent theories of organisational culture emphasise the role that organisational hierarchies and differential power relations play in shaping culture. These new theories take into account conflict, authority and how competing interests manifest in organisational cultures Antonsen, , Silbey, , Blazsin and Guldenmund, They also recognise that within organisations, some people have more power and influence than others, and some are closer to the risk than others.

In other words, safety and risk are not equally distributed Tharaldsen and Haukelid, Although safety climate and safety culture are often used interchangeably in the literature and by regulators e. As with Vu and De Cieri , Zohar advocates that scholars, practitioners and regulators adopt and use consistent definitions of these concepts to allow for more effective monitoring. Silbey argues forcefully against the instrumental or functionalist view of culture when it comes to occupational health and safety, encouraging researchers to explore safety culture from a complex systems perspective.

Similarly, Tharaldsen and Haukelid advocate a holistic approach to safety culture and using both quantitative and qualitative methods to capture the diversity and multiplicity of organisations. The research tends to be based on the statistical analysis of surveys, which has value, but fails to provide a full and nuanced picture of safety cultures.

Instead, they suggest a multi-method approach to uncover what kinds of interventions might improve the safety culture of organisations. Based on interviews with crew members and skippers of small-scale fishing operations, the researchers identified four key OSH enablers.

They connect this finding to the ample evidence in the literature that shows that small businesses frequently employ family and friends and this type of employment arrangement can strengthen the standard of OSH. Skippers and employers expressed feeling under a great deal of pressure for being personally liable for crew member injuries.

Third, interviewees recognised that reducing the costs associated with injuries and illness was an incentive to introducing industry-based OSH preventative initiatives. This point was made often in relation to the state of the fishing industry, which is experiencing dwindling fish stocks and increasing operating costs. This driver overlapped with a barrier, in that many interviewees noted the high costs of complying with safety standards relative to the modest profit margins of small fishing businesses.

A fourth enabler was the occurrence of accidents in the past, which led to accident investigations by ACC and Maritime New Zealand. These investigations led to changes in the way certain operations were performed and the development of new safety measures. Some interviewees observed, however, that the ways in which these investigations were carried out by the authorities caused unnecessary pressure and undue stress, especially on younger skippers.

This last driver points to the common tension between preventive and reactive approaches to health and safety Quinlan et al. While safety culture change programs or initiatives may be driven by good intentions, research shows that when executed poorly, they can have negative consequences. They locate this failure in the general incompatibility of bureaucracy and shared governance: Combining bureaucracy and shared governance reveals a logical contradiction that produces organizational dilemmas.

Bureaucracy minimizes the promised benefits of fully-shared governance — freedom, choice, informality, flexibility, and autonomy — by imposing and enforcing rules, eliminating complexity and uncertainty, and offering little room for innovation. A result of this logical inconsistency is that organizations are unlikely to go all the way toward abandoning bureaucratic forms of control and instead adopt half-shared governance Edwards and Jabs, The challenge then is how to cultivate a safety culture that meets formal regulations without alienating or patronising workers.

Based on research investigating a crisis in the nuclear industry, Mengolini and Debarberis concluded that staff motivation to be involved in improvement activities was crucial to improving health and safety at work.

Wasilkeiwicz et al. While we have been looking at safety culture as something that is cultivated within organisations, let us now turn to some of the health and safety issues that pertain to cultural diversity. Culturally diverse workforces As populations age and fertility rates decline across much of the developed world, including New Zealand, there has been a growing trend to rely on migration to reproduce the labour force.

Changes in immigration policy have also ensured increasing cultural and linguistic diversity. Research demonstrates that different cultures engender different attitudes, perceptions and beliefs regarding safety and risk Diamond, , Kouabenan, Culture also influences how individuals assess the environmental conditions they are operating within and the decisions they make to control risk Rosness et al.

In spite of this, interviews with fishermen overwhelmingly indicated that while ethnicity may have an impact on attitudes and beliefs towards safety, it is the safety culture aboard each vessel that tends to prevail over individual safety attitudes. Nevertheless, cultural diversity has become an important issue in health and safety research and regulation, as labour markets have become increasingly dependent on migrants in much of the developed world Schenker, , Ahonen et al.

Migrant workers are at greater risk In an extensive review, Salminen examined whether immigrant workers have a higher occupational injury rate than native employees. His team at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health collected seventy-two studies from around the world and calculated the risk of occupational injury for foreign-born workers compared to native-born workers.

A calculation based on thirty-one of these studies showed that the risk was 2. In seven studies, immigrants actually had a lower occupational injury rate. At the highest, immigrant workers had ten times the injury rate of native workers. However, three studies demonstrated that immigrant workers had a higher injury rate than the original population during their first five years at the workplace, but that after five years their rate decreased to below the level of native workers.

Based on research in three European countries, Guldenmund et al. Other research has shown that migrant workers are exposed to higher risks due to longer working hours and a higher work tempo Paul, ; and because they are not always offered safety training and have generally worse working conditions McKay et al. Intercultural factors Along with being new to structured workplaces, language and cultural differences pose health and safety challenges for diverse workers and their co-workers.

Culture frames not only the ways people express themselves but how they interpret the actions and intentions of others Bust et al. As Wold and Laumann note, matters of interpretation have been neglected in the health and safety research. Communication encompasses more than verbal language and includes paralanguage intonation, pitch, hesitation noises and non-verbal communication body language.

Interviews with managers, care workers and residents revealed that issues were more likely to arise from misunderstanding accents and pronunciation than lack of English knowledge. Such perceptions and ineffective communication is a significant impediment to health and safety practice.

Reticence may also be a consequence of awkward interactions within the workplace where CALD [culturally and linguistically diverse] workers may feel embarrassed, lack confidence and experience anxiety about making mistakes. Due to such miscommunication and cultural misunderstanding, co-workers may perceive migrant workers to be incompetent or deficient in work ethic Migrant workers must navigate unfamiliar territory, especially when new to a workplace. Many of the nursing staff for whom English is a second language came from cultures where care work is carried out in the home as unpaid work.

Many had only worked in hospital settings in their home countries and were unfamiliar with the social norms of Australian aged care facilities and the formality of health and safety arrangements required by Australian workplaces.

As a result, migrant workers may be less likely to report problems through formal channels, preferring to solve problems themselves and continue working. This is more than providing a regular session on cultural differences, although this is a useful starting point. What is needed is training that encourages participation and reflection, and promotes an understanding of the role of culture in creating shared meaning Another suggestion for conveying effective health and safety messages to a linguistically diverse workforce is the use of audio-visual materials Bust et al.

Another sector marked by the increasing globalisation of the workforce and the accompanying cultural challenges is the construction industry. Their claim is based on research on Polish workers in the Norwegian construction industry. Within the safety culture of organisations or workplaces, these authors focus on how a workforce consisting of multiple nationalities creates inter- and cross-cultural challenges.

Hofstede was an early advocate of the significant role that cultural differences between different nationalities play in the world of work and organizations. Moreover, Wegner has shown that regardless of cultural background, people who share the same craft or trade or are involved in the same activities find common sources of meaning and identity. Wasilkiewicz et al. The authors found Norwegian and English skills varied among the Polish interviewees, where the younger workers generally had better English skills English being spoken more than Norwegian on work sites.

Several companies had organised language courses for their migrant workers, though these were typically in the evening after work. Although well-intentioned, some interview responses suggested that the classes placed extra demand on workers and led to fatigue. As Wasilkiewicz et al. Health and safety representatives and committees It is well recognised that workplace health and safety systems are more likely to be effective if they are collaborated and mutually agreed on by employers and employees Walters et al.

Recent research has highlighted how health and safety representatives and committees often do not reflect the cultural diversity of the workplaces they are meant to serve and that this is a barrier to good health and safety. For instance, based on qualitative research in the hospitality sector in New Zealand, Ravenswood et al. As the authors note, hospitality is a sector that has long been characterised as a diverse workforce; diverse in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, social class and race.

Within this diversity, migrant workers have played a central role, particularly in housekeeping and cleaning operations. Not only do migrant workers, in general, have higher rates of injury and illness, but they are also more likely to be in precarious employment, to engage in more dangerous work, and work below their level of qualification.

These conditions expose them to not only more physical hazards but greater mental health risks Giovannone and Sargeant, As Ravenswood et al. These conditions are linked with stress, fatigue, work-life imbalance and subsequent relationship problems, which add to employee stress.

The work-life imbalance is pervasive among employees in the hospitality industry and has been identified as a key barrier to career progression, particularly among females As part of a larger project investigating the relationship between employee participation and employee well-being in Denmark and New Zealand, Ravenswood et al. They also may not receive information about the OSH committee and the call for staff members.

Finally, they may be part-time workers with other commitments, or work night shifts, making attendance to OSH meetings difficult. Based on interviews with both upper management and lower level employees, the authors conclude that the monocultural bias of OSH committees in the hotel sector reflects a larger social issue: The lack of diversity and migrant representation in the hotel OSH committees may also reflect the broader social pressures on migrants and culturally diverse employees.

The authors point out that the dominant social groups in any society often seek to maintain the status quo and the idea of a homogenous population by reinforcing class exclusion based on migrant and non-migrant status Ravenswood et al. Thus, they question whether such committees are effective avenues for employee representation and whether the current government regulations are addressing the matter.

The author argues that worker participation enhances employee well-being on three levels. Worker participation in minimising the risks and hazards that they face in the workplace is more democratic. Social Justice. Related to ethics, the right of workers to elect representative, form unions and participate in the running of business through work councils and collective bargaining must be respected regardless of cost.

Reduction in Injuries and Fatalities. Research clearly shows that the number of injuries and fatalities decreases when there is greater worker participation. In this section, we have been surveying the cultural barriers and enablers of safe and healthy work, focusing particularly on contexts and sectors with diverse workforces.

Overall, the literature calls for increasing employee participation and diverse representation and greater understanding by organisations and regulators to the role of culture in workplace health and safety. Te Taha Hinengaro psychological health 2. Te Taha Wairua spiritual health 3. Te Taha Tinana physical health 4. The next section will consider another aspect of culture that has tended to be overlooked until recently.

Regulators should be mindful of how gendered patterns of work result in different patterns of hazard exposure, which in turn result in different health problems. Under-regulation of female-dominated sectors The division of labour in contemporary societies, including New Zealand, is highly segregated by gender, meaning that male and female workers tend to cluster in particular occupations Kreimer, , Statistics New Zealand Different patterns of work result in different patterns of hazard exposure, which in turn result in different health problems.

In particular, women and men face different risks to their reproductive health Hooftman et al. Understanding the impact of gender social and sex biological differences on men's and women's occupational health and safety can help reduce inequality in the workplace Campos-Serna et al. For instance, discrimination against new and expectant mothers is a well-known phenomenon that regulators should focus on Boeri et al.

The under-regulation of female-dominated sectors is a significant barrier to health, safety and well-being of female workers. Females dominated sectors such as teaching, healthcare and administration tend to have high-risk profiles for the development of chronic health problems, especially stress-related illnesses Safe Work Australia In the New Zealand context, Duncan b notes: The health conditions most likely to affect workers in female-dominated industries are the least likely to receive ACC cover, leaving these workers without support or assistance.

The chronic health effects of work also tend to receive less attention from the regulator, meaning there is less guidance and enforcement action focused on female-dominated industries. To illustrate her point, she compares the risks of a builder — a traditionally male occupation — with that of a social worker — a female-dominated profession. The risks associated with being a builder include accidental injuries, such as falling, crushing injuries, electric shocks, slips, trips and strains.

The job of a social worker, by contrast, tends to have risks associated with occupational violence e. Corresponding to the lack of support for health conditions affecting women in female-dominated occupations is a lack of data on the extent of these conditions. This leads to a vicious cycle that has left the issue unaddressed, as observed by the Independent Taskforce on Workplace Health and Safety Duncan maintains that the ACC scheme and the HSWA are ill-designed for psychosocial hazards, including stress, care fatigue, bullying, of contemporary female-dominated occupations.

Despite this assertion, the HSWA covers these psychosocial hazards. Moreover, Duncan overlooks the fact that there are numerous serious chronic diseases that predominately affect men. Builders, for instance, are at risk from exposure to asbestos, dust e.

Men are also overrepresented in hearing loss statistics. Masculine-dominated work and risks Compared to women, men are at greater risk for serious injury and fatality at work. This is due to the concentration of men in high-risk occupations. Along with the fact that men tend to work in high-risk occupations, research suggests that gender defined as the social and cultural processes by which men and women learn, adapt, negotiate and express attitudes and behaviours assigned to them based on their sex can influence health and help-seeking behaviours Stergiou-Kita et al.

There is also evidence that men are more likely than women to engage in risky activities and less likely to engage in health seeking and health promotion behaviour Berger et al. Along with a general reluctance to discuss mental health issues and attend to serious health issues, compared to women, men tend to have limited ability or willingness to mobilise social supports when needed Williams, In an extensive review of the literature, Stergiou-Kita et al.

The first is the traditional celebration of heroism, physical strength, toughness and stoicism in high-risk sectors such as mining, farming, construction, firefighting, the military, protective services and professional sport. Being self-reliant, sardonic, loyal and generous to the like-minded, and resentful of authority are also some of the masculine traits found in high-risk sectors, such as commercial fishing King, Numerous studies show that in male-dominated occupations, there is an expectation that men accept the risks in their work and endure pain without complaint Phillips, , Gherardi and Nicolini, , Pink et al.

Research also suggests that young male workers may be especially vulnerable to workplace injuries and fatalities due to their limited work experience and a greater likelihood of being employed in SMEs which have higher accident rates. Young male workers may also be pressured to accept and normalise occupational risks, and are often assigned the most dangerous and undesirable tasks.

They also may feel hindered in their ability to voice health and safety concerns due to hierarchical relationships and cultural factors Hayman et al. Finally, labour market forces, production pressures and valuing profit over occupational health and safety put men at risk though this may also apply to women. Along with the cultural factors we have been surveying, research shows that management and leadership have a major impact on the safety culture and OSH performance of organisations.

Along with employee participation, leadership and management commitment to health, safety and well-being at work has been identified as a key aspect of high performing safety cultures Gadd and Collins, Based on a meta-analytic review of transformational and transactional leadership styles8, Clarke suggests that leadership styles have a differential effect on safety compliance and safety participation — thus, training and development programmes should be tailored and make specific links between leader behaviours and their subsequent influence on employee behaviour.

Zohar also analysed the effects of different leadership styles on workplace health and safety and found that a blend of transformational and transactional leadership provide complementary modes of influence on safety behavior of group members. Based on qualitative interviews with CEOs and senior management of successful organisations internationally, researchers at the Campbell Institute identified several important facets of OSH leadership.

Effective leaders have the ability to inspire others to behave safely, recognize the connection between good safety and good business practices, possess up-to-date health and safety knowledge, and have the communication skills to convey it. Furthermore, a combination of transactional and transformational leadership styles brings about remarkable achievements in OSH performance. Senior management has ultimate responsibility and accountability for OSH policies and incidents.

Effective leaders take the time to regularly relay messages of safety through various channels. Worker empowerment regarding the development, distribution, and enforcement of OSH messages and policies is important for obtaining worker consensus and compliance.

Equally important are leader-member exchanges and the encouragement of safety citizenship behavior to involve workers in safety initiatives. Transformational leadership is where leaders work with subordinates to identify needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in co-operation with committed members of a group.

OSH factors into all major business decisions, such as new product development, mergers, acquisitions and contractor relations. Leadership training is essential to ensuring that OSH leaders are grown within an organization. In sum, this study found that leadership commitment and competence, trust and respect, and open communication generate internal motivation, worker empowerment, and voluntary participation in a strong safety culture.

While this research pertained to senior leadership, Justensen et al. In a study of six Danish organisations, middle managers were found to play a key role in the successful implementation of workplace health promotion WHP , but expressed uncertainty about their role, especially when it came to engaging with their employees.

Such role uncertainty appears to make middle managers reluctant to take action on WHP and leave further action to top management instead. Moreover, middle managers typically do not find it easy or are unwilling to fit WHP into their daily work. They often ask for more training and skills when they are mandated to work with WHP in daily business.

Furthermore, middle managers must work closer together with their change agents to set goals for their work together with the change agents. Based on legal research in Canada, Gray observes a tendency to neglect the social and political culture in which individual responsibility is embedded and experienced: A fundamental critique of the neo-liberal individual way of governing is the lack of broader political and social foresight.

In many cases, these strategies are merely attempts to shift the burden of social control on to individuals and organizations that are poorly equipped to carry out this task. The workplace is one such organization that is often poorly equipped to distribute responsibility equally among all parties, given the hierarchy of control under the employment contract. This is because individual responsibility and action are always bound up in larger, more complex sets of social and institutional relationships that are shaped by labour markets and government regulations Bourdieu, , Weber, , Inda, Placing undue responsibility on individual employees is thus a barrier to a well- performing safety system.

Participatory strategies for health and safety regulation pose particular challenges for small to medium enterprises SMEs , which make up a major portion of the New Zealand labour market. Although research is still limited, Legg et al. This is even more so for SMEs with less than 20 employees Legg et al.

They also note that there are most likely higher levels of underreporting by SMEs. Understanding the higher risk of accidents and injuries in SMEs requires understanding how they differ from large enterprises. Taken together, these factors point to the need for multi- dimensional strategies when it comes to managing health and safety in SMEs. Some of the models and preventative approaches that appear to be most successful for SMEs include different types of safety checklists, safety training and educational programmes, industrial hygiene interventions, health promotion and behavioural interventions and enforcement Legg et al.

For such interventions to be successful, they need to take into account the characteristics of the owner-manager style operation of most SMEs Masi et al. Understanding the motivating factors of owner-managers to actively participate in OSH activities has been shown to be particularly important Kvorning et al. Kvorning et al. Along with tailored content, there is a need for government intervention programmes that reach poor SME performers: Government commitment is essential and involves formal and informal intermediaries such as industry associations, networks and services e.

A relationship to these intermediaries needs to be developed with a give-and-take approach. Governments need to provide seed funding to develop collaboration within a targeted sector to develop networks and common rules and standards. Governments also need to enforce jointly developed standards to create engagement from owner managers Legg et al. While commitment from government and owner-managers to workplace health and safety is crucial, it is also necessary to understand the practices and perspectives of employees in SMEs.

Based on ethnographic research in the construction industry in Denmark specifically, plumbing, masonry and carpentry , Ozmec et al. The health and safety practices of these construction workers were largely based on intuition, feelings, personal experience and negotiating a balance between workflow, customer satisfaction and safe working.

The researchers observed that while owner-managers provided the physical equipment safety equipment, tools, etc. Thus, for SMEs, safety practices involve complex negotiations between internal and external factors, and the tacit dimensions should not be overlooked.

Compounding the greater occupational health and safety risks of SMEs are recent labour market changes that have increased the availability of temporary versus permanent employment opportunities. There is thus a need for policies that promote secure employment and policies to ensure that health and safety protocols are in place and followed for contingent workers. There is growing evidence that links the rise of contingent work e.

Research suggests that job insecurity has negative impacts on employee safety attitudes and practices by creating a lack of employee commitment, as well as stress and anxiety for workers who are concerned about their future livelihoods. As Probst et al. On the other hand, there is some research that suggests that contingent employees experience less adversity related to job insecurity because they know that their tenure is limited van den Tooren and de Jong, On organisational levels, work intensification, understaffing and constraints on occupational health and safety training have been shown to lead to poor outcomes Quinlan and Bohle, , Quinlan, Temporary workers in the construction industry, for instance, have been shown to be at greater risk for falls due to inadequate safety training, a lack of protective equipment and may be assigned the least desirable and most dangerous jobs Stergiou-Kita et al.

Temporary workers tend to be younger, inexperienced and less knowledgeable about the jobs they do, increasing their exposure to risks McCloskey, As noted above, migrant workers are also overrepresented in precarious and hazardous work, often in SMEs Lamm, The model organises the factors that have a negative OSH impact on precarious workers into three categories, summarised as follows: 1.

Disorganization at the workplace - Lack of commitment by businesses to investing in stable workforce - Short tenure, inexperience - Poor induction, training and supervision - Ineffective procedures and communication - Ineffective health and safety management systems and inability to organise 3.

It is interesting to note that while precarious employment has been on the rise since the s, and especially since the global financial crisis of , the term and phenomenon were prevalent in the pre-WWII era, stretching back to the industrial revolution Quinlan, As Quinlan notes, the earliest occupational health and safety legislation in the 19th century was directly connected to precarious, unprotected workers in industrialising societies. While a growing body of research has examined the effects of job insecurity and precarious employment on occupational health and safety, few studies have examined seasonal work as a specific form of temporary employment.

Schweder et al. While seasonal workers were found to have higher physical injury rates than permanent employees, the authors found no significant difference in psychological well-being. This may be due to higher levels of stress and work intensity amongst permanent employees, who may have more demands placed on them than temporary employees. Thus, the study reinforces the need for more nuanced explanations of how temporary work can affect health and safety outcomes.

Connected but not limited to the OSH challenges posed by contingent work is the growing body of research which recognises the psychosocial risks and pathologies marking 21st-century work. This is due to the negative impact on individual employees and the costs associated with low productivity and the long periods away from work that are typical of mental health conditions and psychosocial stressors.

Research suggests that by , stress-related illnesses such as depression and cardiovascular disease will be the leading causes of the global disease burden Safe Work Australia, b. After briefly defining the key concepts in this space, the following section will survey the barriers and enablers to mental health and well-being for workers. Key concepts Mental health is a vaguely defined concept, but it can be described as the absence of mental illness and the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being Keyes, The increasingly prevalent concept, psychosocial, points to the ways in which subjective experience is interwoven with social life.

The premise is that psychological issues and subjective experiences cannot be abstracted from societal, cultural, and historical contexts; nor can they be deterministically reduced to the social. Similarly, social and cultural worlds are shaped by psychological processes and intersubjective relations Psychosocial Studies Association. Finally, well-being is a holistic concept that extends the traditional concept of health to emphasise the interconnections of the biological, psychological and social bio-psycho-social domains.

Identifying mental health and psychosocial risk factors From a research and policy perspective, measuring the impact of employment and working conditions on mental health poses greater methodological challenges than measuring physical harm from workplace accidents Barnay Much of the challenge stems from the difficulty of isolating biological, psychological and social factors and establishing direct causal relations to work.

Australian and European studies, for instance, show a strong correlation between physical and mental health, particularly among female populations Leach et al. Another example can be found in epidemiological studies which have found that upper extremity disorders suggest intense or stressful workloads and monotonous work, whereas low levels of social support at work correspond to an increased risk of upper limb disorders Bongers et al. Risk preferences, job satisfaction, family background and the situation at home are other variables that relate to mental health and employment.

Mental health problems are also related to leadership and management styles and support Munir et al. In other words, poor leadership and management practices are a barrier to positive mental health and well-being among workers, as is the introduction of new technologies without proper training.

There are gender differences, however. Across the European Union, Barnay found that both having a job and working fulltime were associated with lower prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression among men, though not among women.

While not being employed is overall worse for mental health than employment, this is much more pronounced among men. Precarious, part-time work is associated with higher cases of depression among both women and men, and workers on temporary contracts may suffer more psychologically due to job insecurity.

Unemployment and non-employment during the beginning of working life have also been linked to the development of depressive symptoms Barnay In sum, secure employment is an enabler of well-being, whereas insecure and precarious employment is a barrier. More than ethics, promoting the mental health of workers is typically framed in economic terms. The research was guided by an innovative theoretical framework — Psychosocial Safety Climate PSC theory — which states that work conditions, worker health and engagement can be predicted when the psychosocial safety climate of an organisation or work group is known.

Another key finding was that the cost was mostly due to workers showing mild symptoms of depression, as they take twice as many sick days as those who do not show any symptoms of depression at all. The research indicated that working hours are a major issue in the workplace, with over 40 per cent of participants working more than the Australian national standard of 38 hours and 18 per cent working longer than 48 hours per week.

This is of particular significance, as work-family conflict is one of the major contributors to poor health and well-being. For all workers, factors including PSC, emotional demands, work pressure, bullying, justice, rewards, and decision authority were major contributors to poor psychological health.

The report recommends that prevention strategies should focus on addressing these aspects. Having a greater sense of control at work and increased time control are other key enablers of the mental health and well-being of workers Munir et al. This includes making sure there is no discrimination or bullying taking place at work, and taking steps to reduce work-related stress Health Promotion Agency, The HSWA specifies that businesses must take reasonably practicable steps to protect health and prevent harm at work, including psychological harm WorkSafe Corresponding to the current mental health epidemic, especially depression and anxiety disorders, comprehensive legislation is being developed in Australia, the UK, Canada, and most European and OECD countries.

This initiative focused on improving the organisation of work and working conditions in order to promote mental well-being, to assess and prevent the impact of specific behaviours such as stress, violence, harassment and drug use, and finally to help people suffering from mental disorders to return to the labour market Barnay In the New Zealand context, Duncan acknowledges that the reform package of the HSWA takes positive health and safety steps by expanding the scope of legal duties, granting greater powers for the regulator, tougher penalties, and a national target to reduce serious injuries and fatalities.

However, she argues that these measures will do little to address the current and looming problem of poor worker mental health in New Zealand Duncan, a. She points out that internationally, mental illness is now the leading cause of sickness absence and long-term work incapacity in most developed countries.

Despite this critique, WorkSafe NZ has identified psychosocial health and mental health as an important area that needs to be addressed. One example of steps being taken to address this gap is the Worker Exposure Survey, which is going into the field in and will provide prevalence data on the full range of exposures, including psychosocial health a first in New Zealand.

Flourishing is one of a range of ways of conceptualising well-being in its bio-psycho-social dimensions. Drawing on a nationally representative adult sample and using Sovereign Wellbeing Index SWI , the research found that one in four New Zealand workers were categorised as flourishing.

Being older and married, having greater income and financial security, physical health autonomy, strengths awareness and use, work-life balance, job satisfaction, volunteering and feeling appreciated by others were all positively associated with worker flourishing, independent of socio-demographics. In a study of psychosocial stressors among cleaners and clerical workers in New Zealand, Lilley et al.

The increasing prevalence of job insecurity is related to local and global economic recession especially since the GFC , which has accelerated the labour-market trends of organisational downsizing and the use of flexible, insecure employment contracts.

According to Lilley et al. In an article on stress at the workplace, the WHO c suggests a more aspirational perspective on health and well-being: As health is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity but a positive state of complete physical, mental and social well-being WHO, , a healthy working environment is one in which there is not only an absence of harmful conditions but an abundance of health-promoting ones.

Such a holistic approach is also recognised by the International Labour Organization b , who sees a trend in the development of global health policies by employers that covering a whole range of lifestyle issues, including smoking, diet, exercise and mental well-being. If not properly managed, they are associated with poor health and wellbeing, lower productivity and increased absenteeism i. While we have already been covering other jurisdictions in the previous sections, this section will look specifically at the European Union, Australia and Britain.

Policies are thus aimed at improving working environments and conditions to facilitate this. Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union gives the EU the authority to adopt directives in the field of safety and health at work. The Framework Directive, with its wide scope of application, and further directives focusing on specific aspects of safety and health at work are the fundamentals of European safety and health legislation.

Member States are free to adopt stricter rules for the protection of workers when transposing EU directives into national law. Therefore, legislative requirements in the field of safety and health at work can vary across EU Member States. The starting point for legislative initiatives at the European level is a legislative proposal drafted by the European Commission.

In some cases, they delegate the legislative power to adapt directives to technical progress to the European Commission. The European Social Partners legally required dialogues between public authorities, employers and trade unions play a major role in the European decision-making process in the field of safety and health at work, as they have to be consulted at various stages.

In the European Union EU , nearly 2. In an extensive review of the European economic literature commissioned by the OECD, Barnay synthesised key aspects of the connection between health, work and working conditions. The author concluded that a favourable work environment and high job security led to better physical health and protection against psychiatric disorders. The growing use of ICT specifically computers, used frequently throughout the day by one-third of the European workforce contributed to this trend 5.

Long working hours were found to correspond to poor levels of job satisfaction, inadequate working conditions, and negative health effects. In light of this, labour-market policy in Europe has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The research findings clearly invite employers to take better account of the worker's preferences when setting the number of hours they work. The Effort- Reward-Imbalance ERI model11, proposed by Siegrist also shows that low rewards for high effort at work lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders.

Barnay 8 notes that job satisfaction is often used an overall summary of how workers feel about their jobs, and how work contributes to their overall quality of life. Across Europe, research shows that the physical health of workers who have part-time jobs is overall worse than those who are employed full-time.

The exception to this, however, is members of the upper social classes, who are able to work in part-time capacities by choice rather than necessity. Individuals with insecure contractual conditions experience poor health if their jobs are associated with low levels of employability Barnay Across the EU, job loss is associated with negative health outcomes and well-being, and poor health is shown to result in early retirement from the labour market. The aim of flexicurity is to promote employment security over job security.

In Denmark, flexicurity is conceptualised as a triangle. On one side are flexible rules for hiring and firing, which make it easy for the employers to dismiss employees during downturns and hire new staff when things improve. The third side of the triangle is the active labour market policy. An effective system is in place to offer guidance, a job or education to all unemployed. Denmark spends approximately 1. The Health Worker Effect HWE is stronger in more qualified occupations where professional workers demonstrate a stronger overall HWE based on job classification, high socioeconomic status of work white collar.

It is a problem caused by an inadequate reference group which creates bias and precludes the ability to generalise. The large body of literature around the healthy worker effect ultimately points to the socioeconomic determinants of health and thus social inequality World Health Organization, , Marmot, , Benach et al.

Socioeconomic factors, for instance, play a large role in absenteeism, as does gender. European women generally take longer and more frequent sick leave than men. The length of sick leave tends to increase with age, though not necessarily the frequency Barnay, According to Barnay, our current knowledge of the interactions between employment, working conditions and health suggests two key objectives for policymakers: 1.

Improving job sustainability and satisfaction by reducing the impact of unwanted professional shocks on health status and exposure to arduous working conditions. Increasing the re integration of outsiders healthy or unhealthy persons to avoid permanent exclusion from the labour market and negative effects of unwanted non- employment on health status.

For the past three decades, the EU strategy on health and safety has been to improve work environments to protect workers. An explicit responsibility has been put on employers to adapt work to individuals, rather than individuals to work.

As Barnay points out, European policies converge towards the singular objective of job sustainability. This concept refers to the ability of people in employment to maintain this situation throughout their working lives Yet it is also a matter of improving working conditions, as Barnay 19 notes: The empirical economic literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the working time and the number of hours worked.

This chosen flexibility could decrease the negative effects of work on health. Flexibility is thus a key enabler of healthy work. It does not, however, regulate or enforce the WHS legislation. Regulating agencies also known as regulators administer health and safety laws, which may differ across states and territories. Despite its larger population, Australia also provides the best point of comparison with New Zealand due to the cultural similarities, dominant industries high-risk industries are the same, with the exception of forestry and similar social, economic, political and historical characteristics.

The implementation of The Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy and work-related health interventions has proven very successful, with the rate of occupational injuries and fatalities falling steadily since its introduction in For example, in the period immediately following the passing of the Model Act , the injury rate fell by 26 per cent, and the fatality rate fell by 41 per cent SafeWork Australia, a. Despite these positive outcomes, it is worth noting that the overall costs of work-related injuries and diseases did not change much between the periods of and The estimated costs of work-related claims as a percentage of GDP did, however, drop from 4.

The cost borne by employers remained the same for both periods at 5 per cent, while the percentage of cost borne by workers increased from 74 per cent to 77 per cent SafeWork Australia, a. The Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy include national targets and performance indicators that are used to measure the success of national actions.

To achieve this, sub-sectors from within these broad groups have been chosen by jurisdictions during specified periods during the life of the Australian strategy. During the first five years of the strategy, for instance, agriculture and road freight have been the focus of efforts in all jurisdictions to reduce the high number of fatalities in these industries.

Another important aspect of the Australian Strategy is increased international collaboration. Australia is a signatory to a range of international work health and safety conventions and agreements. It also means Australia contributes to building the international evidence base through formal international collaboration, cooperation and exchange of information, particularly about the national priorities.

This has made it easier for companies to comply and improved the social standing of health and safety regulation. HSE and LAs work locally, regionally and nationally, to common objectives and standards. Despite Britain having one of the highest performing safety systems in the world, Almond and Esbester note that the legitimacy and social standing of health and safety regulation there have increasingly come into question.

Political and business leaders have increasingly attacked the issue of health and safety, as has the media and public. The central critique is that the pervasiveness of health and safety and risk aversion has created excessive bureaucracy and red tape. Surveys and interviews in the United Kingdom demonstrate widespread disdain for health and safety professionals, who are often seen as meddling, unskilled and unregulated. According to Almond and Esbester 91 , expertise is the single most influential factor cited in the determining whether members of the public would listen to, respect and cooperate with safety professionals.

The commercialisation of health and safety and the perception of a profit-driven service industry has been a major component of its declining legitimacy of health and safety in the United Kingdom. Yet as Almond and Esbester 83 note, the regulation of health and safety has always been fundamentally political: Health and safety is contested on the basis of how it operates functional , on what authority constitutional , but also on the basis of why it operates justice , and whose interests it represents democratic.

To address these concerns, the Health and Safety Executive HSE of the United Kingdom undertook extensive research and policy reforms between and Two major reviews13 found that businesses often felt they must go above and beyond what health and safety law required. The aim was to avoid unwarranted scrutiny of lower risk organisations and to create a substantial drop in the number of health and safety inspections carried out in Britain from 33, to 22, This offers businesses a free, easily accessible way of finding accredited health and safety advice for their business.

This helps address the problem of rogue health and safety advisers who increase the burden on business and cost industry money by giving advice which bears little relation to the legal requirements. The HSE has also taken steps to remove the fear of being sued that previously led employers to go beyond what the law requires.

New rules were introduced so that civil claims for compensation for people injured at work can only be brought in cases where the employer has been negligent previously an employer could be liable even where they had taken all sensible steps to prevent injury.

The Ministry of Justice has implemented a number of reforms to reduce the costs of litigation to claimants and businesses, to discourage dishonest or fraudulent, exaggerated claims and to ban inducements by legal services providers in personal injury claims. New Zealand is comparatively at an earlier stage. In the previous section, we looked at what New Zealand can learn from other jurisdictions, namely the European Union, Britain and Australia.

Key factors and trends in health, safety and well-being at work were surveyed in section two. The health and safety challenges that arise from culturally diverse workforces was a key theme, as was gendered employment, the rise of precarious employment, the particularities of SMEs and the importance of psychosocial and mental health issues at work. These themes demonstrate how the landscape of health, safety and health and well-being at work has been evolving alongside the social, political and economic changes of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, marked by globalisation, technological change, economic transformation and a weakened labour movement, among other factors United Nations, Given the changing nature of labour markets and work, OSH research, policy and practice will need to keep pace with the rapidly changing conditions of the new millennium, especially considering that the number of workplace injuries, illnesses and deaths remains inexorably high ILO, The following table summarises their work in terms of cross-cutting themes in the future of occupational health and the resulting challenges these will bring.

While these themes and challenges are future focused, many of them are already occurring, as the review above attests to. The US-based National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH describes the rationale for this approach as follows: Traditional occupational safety and health protection programs have primarily concentrated on ensuring that work is safe and that workers are protected from the harms that arise from work itself.

Total Worker Health TWH builds on this approach through the recognition that work is a social determinant of health; job-related factors such as wages, hours of work, workload and stress levels, interactions with co-workers and supervisors, access to paid leave, and health-promoting workplaces all can have an important impact on the well-being of workers, their families, and their communities.

A Total Worker Health approach prioritises a hazard-free work environment for all workers. This approach is premised on the notion that all accidents are technically preventable. These authors call for expanding ZAV to what they call Vision Zero VZ , which encompasses not only occupational safety but complete health in the bio-psycho-social sense. There is some empirical evidence, including from New Zealand, that when implemented correctly, ZAV and VZ lead to improved health and safety by increasing worker participation and empowerment, manager commitment and the encouragement of both a learning culture and a just culture Zwetsloot et al.

If implemented incorrectly, however, Vision Zero runs the risk of creating a safety culture marked by underreporting, excessive bureaucracy, lack of dialogue and transparency, stigmatisation of workers involved in incidents and a punitive orientation Dekker, , Long, Given the prevailing tendency to treat health, safety and well-being at work as separate foci and to downplay psychosocial risks , Zwetsloot et al.

Fitness, for instance, is a concept that bridges these areas, as being physically and mentally fit are key to being alert and risk aware. There is mounting evidence that musculoskeletal disorders MSDs are closely associated with worker fatigue Gallagher and Schall Jr, Research has also shown that stress has a negative impact on workers performance in terms of efficiency and accuracy Flin et al.

Production pressures, high job demand, low job control and job uncertainty have all strongly associated with being stressed at work and making critical errors Mearns et al. Boredom in the workplace is another prevalent phenomenon that bridges the bio-psycho-social domains and can create physical as well as mental health and safety risks Game, , Loukidou et al.

To reduce the frequency and impact of boredom at work, the author recommends training in boredom coping skills, in conjunction with job redesign initiatives that counter boredom. As the above demonstrates, a Vision Zero approach calls for policies and practices that do not treat health, safety and well-being, or the mind and body, as independent domains. As both Dekker and Zwetsloot et al. These include automation and technological change, transformational leadership, adoption of better investigative techniques, change management, the introduction of a just culture reporting system, among other factors.

The second most important factor was transformational leadership that followed the principle of hierarchy of controls in a way that utilised new technologies to eliminate human risk and error. Based on a synthesis of leading research, Stanton et al. Leadership and safety. This raises a set of issues around the changing nature of leadership in organisations, around engagement with health and safety agendas and around the preservation of knowledge and experience in less stable environments.

We reviewed studies of the impact of transportation infrastructure on bicyclist safety. To assess safety, studies examining the following outcomes were included: injuries; injury severity; and crashes. Results to date suggest that sidewalks and multi-use trails pose the highest risk, major roads are more hazardous than minor roads, and the presence of bicycle facilities e.

Street lighting, paved surfaces, and low-angled grades are additional factors that appear to improve cyclist safety. The sample was 2. Factors associated with long working hours differed by gender. In men, working 51—60 h a week was consistently associated with poor mental health status, self-reported hypertension, job dissatisfaction, smoking, shortage of sleep.

Among women it was only related to smoking and to shortage of sleep. The association of overtime with different health indicators among men and women could be explained by their role as the family breadwinner.

Edington; Alyssa B. Schultz , The aim was to present the literature which provides evidence of the association between health risks and the workplace economic measures of time away from work, reduced productivity at work, health care costs and pharmaceutical costs. A search of PubMed was conducted and high quality studies were selected and combined with studies known to the authors.

A strong body of evidence exists which shows that health risks of workers are associated with health care costs and pharmaceutical costs. A growing body of literature also confirms that health risks are associated with the productivity measures. The paper shows that measures of success will continue to be important as the field of worksite health management moves forward.

Cantor , The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and call for additional research into the human, operational, and regulatory issues that contribute to workplace safety in the supply chain. This paper identifies several potential research opportunities that can increase awareness of the importance of improving a firm's workplace safety practices. This paper identifies articles which informs, how the logistics and transportation safety has evolved.

The paper identifies 14 future research opportunities within the workplace safety in the supply chain, that have been identified can have a positive effect on practitioners confronted with safety issues. Gaps and limitations in classic occupational epidemiology, when considered from a gender perspective, are described.

The analysis of work and health from a gender perspective should take into account the complex interactions between gender, family roles, employment status and social class. A total of workers participated. The study among 25, full-time public sector workers in 10 towns in Finland.

Long domestic and total working hours were associated with higher rates of medically certified sickness absences among both genders. Low control over daily working hours predicted medically certified sickness absences for both the women and men.

In combinations, high control over working hours reduced the adverse associations of long domestic and total working hours with medically certified absences. Employee control over daily working hours may protect health and help workers successfully combine a full-time job with the demands of domestic work. Absenteeism and incident frequency rate data were collected over a 33 month period that covered three different roster schedules. The only significant change in absenteeism rates was an increase in the maintenance sector in the third data collection period.

The current study did not find significant negative effects of a hour pattern, when compared to an 8-hour system. The work site is in Osaka, Japan. These results indicate that long working hours are negatively associated with the risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers. Haworth; C. Kowadlo , In response to an increasing awareness of the role of work-related driving in crashes and the related costs, many private and government organisations have developed programs to improve fleet safety.

The purpose of this project is to investigate the potential to introduce road safety based initiatives in the corporate environment. From the review, that the fleet safety initiatives which have potential to be effective are, Selecting safer vehicles, Some particular driver training and education programs, Incentives, Company safety programs.

It is assumed that the degree of influence is likely to decrease as the type of vehicle moves from the fleet towards the private end of the continuum. Its safety to workers who handle large amounts of CCP has been addressed in numerous studies and reports. Since , has produced neither primary skin irritation nor skin sensitization under normal conditions of manufacture and use.

Finally, very few published complaints have come from the manufacturing sector where the closest and most voluminous contact occurs. Based on the weight of the evidence, NIOSH is anticipated to conclude that CCP is not a hazard to workers and has only a small possibility of producing mild and transient skin irritation.

Niven , A literature review was described which aimed to evaluate economic evaluations of health and safety interventions in healthcare. Problems were identified with valuing benefits in health and safety because they frequently take many years to emerge and are difficult to measure. Understanding of economic techniques within the health and safety professions was limited, resulting in wide-ranging assumptions being made as to the positive economic impact of health and safety interventions.

Healthcare managers, health economists, and health and safety professionals have not traditionally worked together and have inherent misunderstandings of each other roles. The review 5. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day.

Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention.

It is concluded that there is currently sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health and safety of long working hours. There are also other non-efficiency reasons for government involvement in workplace safety and health.

While the empirical evidence is not clear cut, the balance of the evidence suggests that wages may include some consideration for health and safety risks. There is a lack of evaluation of intervention studies, both in terms of effect and practical applicability.

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Te Taha Hinengaro psychological health 2. Te Taha Wairua spiritual health 3. Te Taha Tinana physical health 4. The next section will consider another aspect of culture that has tended to be overlooked until recently. Regulators should be mindful of how gendered patterns of work result in different patterns of hazard exposure, which in turn result in different health problems.

Under-regulation of female-dominated sectors The division of labour in contemporary societies, including New Zealand, is highly segregated by gender, meaning that male and female workers tend to cluster in particular occupations Kreimer, , Statistics New Zealand Different patterns of work result in different patterns of hazard exposure, which in turn result in different health problems. In particular, women and men face different risks to their reproductive health Hooftman et al.

Understanding the impact of gender social and sex biological differences on men's and women's occupational health and safety can help reduce inequality in the workplace Campos-Serna et al. For instance, discrimination against new and expectant mothers is a well-known phenomenon that regulators should focus on Boeri et al.

The under-regulation of female-dominated sectors is a significant barrier to health, safety and well-being of female workers. Females dominated sectors such as teaching, healthcare and administration tend to have high-risk profiles for the development of chronic health problems, especially stress-related illnesses Safe Work Australia In the New Zealand context, Duncan b notes: The health conditions most likely to affect workers in female-dominated industries are the least likely to receive ACC cover, leaving these workers without support or assistance.

The chronic health effects of work also tend to receive less attention from the regulator, meaning there is less guidance and enforcement action focused on female-dominated industries. To illustrate her point, she compares the risks of a builder — a traditionally male occupation — with that of a social worker — a female-dominated profession.

The risks associated with being a builder include accidental injuries, such as falling, crushing injuries, electric shocks, slips, trips and strains. The job of a social worker, by contrast, tends to have risks associated with occupational violence e. Corresponding to the lack of support for health conditions affecting women in female-dominated occupations is a lack of data on the extent of these conditions.

This leads to a vicious cycle that has left the issue unaddressed, as observed by the Independent Taskforce on Workplace Health and Safety Duncan maintains that the ACC scheme and the HSWA are ill-designed for psychosocial hazards, including stress, care fatigue, bullying, of contemporary female-dominated occupations.

Despite this assertion, the HSWA covers these psychosocial hazards. Moreover, Duncan overlooks the fact that there are numerous serious chronic diseases that predominately affect men. Builders, for instance, are at risk from exposure to asbestos, dust e. Men are also overrepresented in hearing loss statistics. Masculine-dominated work and risks Compared to women, men are at greater risk for serious injury and fatality at work. This is due to the concentration of men in high-risk occupations.

Along with the fact that men tend to work in high-risk occupations, research suggests that gender defined as the social and cultural processes by which men and women learn, adapt, negotiate and express attitudes and behaviours assigned to them based on their sex can influence health and help-seeking behaviours Stergiou-Kita et al. There is also evidence that men are more likely than women to engage in risky activities and less likely to engage in health seeking and health promotion behaviour Berger et al.

Along with a general reluctance to discuss mental health issues and attend to serious health issues, compared to women, men tend to have limited ability or willingness to mobilise social supports when needed Williams, In an extensive review of the literature, Stergiou-Kita et al.

The first is the traditional celebration of heroism, physical strength, toughness and stoicism in high-risk sectors such as mining, farming, construction, firefighting, the military, protective services and professional sport. Being self-reliant, sardonic, loyal and generous to the like-minded, and resentful of authority are also some of the masculine traits found in high-risk sectors, such as commercial fishing King, Numerous studies show that in male-dominated occupations, there is an expectation that men accept the risks in their work and endure pain without complaint Phillips, , Gherardi and Nicolini, , Pink et al.

Research also suggests that young male workers may be especially vulnerable to workplace injuries and fatalities due to their limited work experience and a greater likelihood of being employed in SMEs which have higher accident rates. Young male workers may also be pressured to accept and normalise occupational risks, and are often assigned the most dangerous and undesirable tasks.

They also may feel hindered in their ability to voice health and safety concerns due to hierarchical relationships and cultural factors Hayman et al. Finally, labour market forces, production pressures and valuing profit over occupational health and safety put men at risk though this may also apply to women. Along with the cultural factors we have been surveying, research shows that management and leadership have a major impact on the safety culture and OSH performance of organisations.

Along with employee participation, leadership and management commitment to health, safety and well-being at work has been identified as a key aspect of high performing safety cultures Gadd and Collins, Based on a meta-analytic review of transformational and transactional leadership styles8, Clarke suggests that leadership styles have a differential effect on safety compliance and safety participation — thus, training and development programmes should be tailored and make specific links between leader behaviours and their subsequent influence on employee behaviour.

Zohar also analysed the effects of different leadership styles on workplace health and safety and found that a blend of transformational and transactional leadership provide complementary modes of influence on safety behavior of group members. Based on qualitative interviews with CEOs and senior management of successful organisations internationally, researchers at the Campbell Institute identified several important facets of OSH leadership.

Effective leaders have the ability to inspire others to behave safely, recognize the connection between good safety and good business practices, possess up-to-date health and safety knowledge, and have the communication skills to convey it. Furthermore, a combination of transactional and transformational leadership styles brings about remarkable achievements in OSH performance.

Senior management has ultimate responsibility and accountability for OSH policies and incidents. Effective leaders take the time to regularly relay messages of safety through various channels. Worker empowerment regarding the development, distribution, and enforcement of OSH messages and policies is important for obtaining worker consensus and compliance. Equally important are leader-member exchanges and the encouragement of safety citizenship behavior to involve workers in safety initiatives.

Transformational leadership is where leaders work with subordinates to identify needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in co-operation with committed members of a group. OSH factors into all major business decisions, such as new product development, mergers, acquisitions and contractor relations.

Leadership training is essential to ensuring that OSH leaders are grown within an organization. In sum, this study found that leadership commitment and competence, trust and respect, and open communication generate internal motivation, worker empowerment, and voluntary participation in a strong safety culture. While this research pertained to senior leadership, Justensen et al. In a study of six Danish organisations, middle managers were found to play a key role in the successful implementation of workplace health promotion WHP , but expressed uncertainty about their role, especially when it came to engaging with their employees.

Such role uncertainty appears to make middle managers reluctant to take action on WHP and leave further action to top management instead. Moreover, middle managers typically do not find it easy or are unwilling to fit WHP into their daily work.

They often ask for more training and skills when they are mandated to work with WHP in daily business. Furthermore, middle managers must work closer together with their change agents to set goals for their work together with the change agents. Based on legal research in Canada, Gray observes a tendency to neglect the social and political culture in which individual responsibility is embedded and experienced: A fundamental critique of the neo-liberal individual way of governing is the lack of broader political and social foresight.

In many cases, these strategies are merely attempts to shift the burden of social control on to individuals and organizations that are poorly equipped to carry out this task. The workplace is one such organization that is often poorly equipped to distribute responsibility equally among all parties, given the hierarchy of control under the employment contract. This is because individual responsibility and action are always bound up in larger, more complex sets of social and institutional relationships that are shaped by labour markets and government regulations Bourdieu, , Weber, , Inda, Placing undue responsibility on individual employees is thus a barrier to a well- performing safety system.

Participatory strategies for health and safety regulation pose particular challenges for small to medium enterprises SMEs , which make up a major portion of the New Zealand labour market. Although research is still limited, Legg et al. This is even more so for SMEs with less than 20 employees Legg et al. They also note that there are most likely higher levels of underreporting by SMEs. Understanding the higher risk of accidents and injuries in SMEs requires understanding how they differ from large enterprises.

Taken together, these factors point to the need for multi- dimensional strategies when it comes to managing health and safety in SMEs. Some of the models and preventative approaches that appear to be most successful for SMEs include different types of safety checklists, safety training and educational programmes, industrial hygiene interventions, health promotion and behavioural interventions and enforcement Legg et al.

For such interventions to be successful, they need to take into account the characteristics of the owner-manager style operation of most SMEs Masi et al. Understanding the motivating factors of owner-managers to actively participate in OSH activities has been shown to be particularly important Kvorning et al. Kvorning et al. Along with tailored content, there is a need for government intervention programmes that reach poor SME performers: Government commitment is essential and involves formal and informal intermediaries such as industry associations, networks and services e.

A relationship to these intermediaries needs to be developed with a give-and-take approach. Governments need to provide seed funding to develop collaboration within a targeted sector to develop networks and common rules and standards. Governments also need to enforce jointly developed standards to create engagement from owner managers Legg et al.

While commitment from government and owner-managers to workplace health and safety is crucial, it is also necessary to understand the practices and perspectives of employees in SMEs. Based on ethnographic research in the construction industry in Denmark specifically, plumbing, masonry and carpentry , Ozmec et al. The health and safety practices of these construction workers were largely based on intuition, feelings, personal experience and negotiating a balance between workflow, customer satisfaction and safe working.

The researchers observed that while owner-managers provided the physical equipment safety equipment, tools, etc. Thus, for SMEs, safety practices involve complex negotiations between internal and external factors, and the tacit dimensions should not be overlooked.

Compounding the greater occupational health and safety risks of SMEs are recent labour market changes that have increased the availability of temporary versus permanent employment opportunities. There is thus a need for policies that promote secure employment and policies to ensure that health and safety protocols are in place and followed for contingent workers.

There is growing evidence that links the rise of contingent work e. Research suggests that job insecurity has negative impacts on employee safety attitudes and practices by creating a lack of employee commitment, as well as stress and anxiety for workers who are concerned about their future livelihoods. As Probst et al. On the other hand, there is some research that suggests that contingent employees experience less adversity related to job insecurity because they know that their tenure is limited van den Tooren and de Jong, On organisational levels, work intensification, understaffing and constraints on occupational health and safety training have been shown to lead to poor outcomes Quinlan and Bohle, , Quinlan, Temporary workers in the construction industry, for instance, have been shown to be at greater risk for falls due to inadequate safety training, a lack of protective equipment and may be assigned the least desirable and most dangerous jobs Stergiou-Kita et al.

Temporary workers tend to be younger, inexperienced and less knowledgeable about the jobs they do, increasing their exposure to risks McCloskey, As noted above, migrant workers are also overrepresented in precarious and hazardous work, often in SMEs Lamm, The model organises the factors that have a negative OSH impact on precarious workers into three categories, summarised as follows: 1.

Disorganization at the workplace - Lack of commitment by businesses to investing in stable workforce - Short tenure, inexperience - Poor induction, training and supervision - Ineffective procedures and communication - Ineffective health and safety management systems and inability to organise 3.

It is interesting to note that while precarious employment has been on the rise since the s, and especially since the global financial crisis of , the term and phenomenon were prevalent in the pre-WWII era, stretching back to the industrial revolution Quinlan, As Quinlan notes, the earliest occupational health and safety legislation in the 19th century was directly connected to precarious, unprotected workers in industrialising societies.

While a growing body of research has examined the effects of job insecurity and precarious employment on occupational health and safety, few studies have examined seasonal work as a specific form of temporary employment. Schweder et al. While seasonal workers were found to have higher physical injury rates than permanent employees, the authors found no significant difference in psychological well-being.

This may be due to higher levels of stress and work intensity amongst permanent employees, who may have more demands placed on them than temporary employees. Thus, the study reinforces the need for more nuanced explanations of how temporary work can affect health and safety outcomes. Connected but not limited to the OSH challenges posed by contingent work is the growing body of research which recognises the psychosocial risks and pathologies marking 21st-century work.

This is due to the negative impact on individual employees and the costs associated with low productivity and the long periods away from work that are typical of mental health conditions and psychosocial stressors.

Research suggests that by , stress-related illnesses such as depression and cardiovascular disease will be the leading causes of the global disease burden Safe Work Australia, b. After briefly defining the key concepts in this space, the following section will survey the barriers and enablers to mental health and well-being for workers. Key concepts Mental health is a vaguely defined concept, but it can be described as the absence of mental illness and the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being Keyes, The increasingly prevalent concept, psychosocial, points to the ways in which subjective experience is interwoven with social life.

The premise is that psychological issues and subjective experiences cannot be abstracted from societal, cultural, and historical contexts; nor can they be deterministically reduced to the social. Similarly, social and cultural worlds are shaped by psychological processes and intersubjective relations Psychosocial Studies Association.

Finally, well-being is a holistic concept that extends the traditional concept of health to emphasise the interconnections of the biological, psychological and social bio-psycho-social domains. Identifying mental health and psychosocial risk factors From a research and policy perspective, measuring the impact of employment and working conditions on mental health poses greater methodological challenges than measuring physical harm from workplace accidents Barnay Much of the challenge stems from the difficulty of isolating biological, psychological and social factors and establishing direct causal relations to work.

Australian and European studies, for instance, show a strong correlation between physical and mental health, particularly among female populations Leach et al. Another example can be found in epidemiological studies which have found that upper extremity disorders suggest intense or stressful workloads and monotonous work, whereas low levels of social support at work correspond to an increased risk of upper limb disorders Bongers et al.

Risk preferences, job satisfaction, family background and the situation at home are other variables that relate to mental health and employment. Mental health problems are also related to leadership and management styles and support Munir et al.

In other words, poor leadership and management practices are a barrier to positive mental health and well-being among workers, as is the introduction of new technologies without proper training. There are gender differences, however. Across the European Union, Barnay found that both having a job and working fulltime were associated with lower prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression among men, though not among women. While not being employed is overall worse for mental health than employment, this is much more pronounced among men.

Precarious, part-time work is associated with higher cases of depression among both women and men, and workers on temporary contracts may suffer more psychologically due to job insecurity. Unemployment and non-employment during the beginning of working life have also been linked to the development of depressive symptoms Barnay In sum, secure employment is an enabler of well-being, whereas insecure and precarious employment is a barrier.

More than ethics, promoting the mental health of workers is typically framed in economic terms. The research was guided by an innovative theoretical framework — Psychosocial Safety Climate PSC theory — which states that work conditions, worker health and engagement can be predicted when the psychosocial safety climate of an organisation or work group is known.

Another key finding was that the cost was mostly due to workers showing mild symptoms of depression, as they take twice as many sick days as those who do not show any symptoms of depression at all. The research indicated that working hours are a major issue in the workplace, with over 40 per cent of participants working more than the Australian national standard of 38 hours and 18 per cent working longer than 48 hours per week.

This is of particular significance, as work-family conflict is one of the major contributors to poor health and well-being. For all workers, factors including PSC, emotional demands, work pressure, bullying, justice, rewards, and decision authority were major contributors to poor psychological health. The report recommends that prevention strategies should focus on addressing these aspects. Having a greater sense of control at work and increased time control are other key enablers of the mental health and well-being of workers Munir et al.

This includes making sure there is no discrimination or bullying taking place at work, and taking steps to reduce work-related stress Health Promotion Agency, The HSWA specifies that businesses must take reasonably practicable steps to protect health and prevent harm at work, including psychological harm WorkSafe Corresponding to the current mental health epidemic, especially depression and anxiety disorders, comprehensive legislation is being developed in Australia, the UK, Canada, and most European and OECD countries.

This initiative focused on improving the organisation of work and working conditions in order to promote mental well-being, to assess and prevent the impact of specific behaviours such as stress, violence, harassment and drug use, and finally to help people suffering from mental disorders to return to the labour market Barnay In the New Zealand context, Duncan acknowledges that the reform package of the HSWA takes positive health and safety steps by expanding the scope of legal duties, granting greater powers for the regulator, tougher penalties, and a national target to reduce serious injuries and fatalities.

However, she argues that these measures will do little to address the current and looming problem of poor worker mental health in New Zealand Duncan, a. She points out that internationally, mental illness is now the leading cause of sickness absence and long-term work incapacity in most developed countries. Despite this critique, WorkSafe NZ has identified psychosocial health and mental health as an important area that needs to be addressed.

One example of steps being taken to address this gap is the Worker Exposure Survey, which is going into the field in and will provide prevalence data on the full range of exposures, including psychosocial health a first in New Zealand. Flourishing is one of a range of ways of conceptualising well-being in its bio-psycho-social dimensions. Drawing on a nationally representative adult sample and using Sovereign Wellbeing Index SWI , the research found that one in four New Zealand workers were categorised as flourishing.

Being older and married, having greater income and financial security, physical health autonomy, strengths awareness and use, work-life balance, job satisfaction, volunteering and feeling appreciated by others were all positively associated with worker flourishing, independent of socio-demographics. In a study of psychosocial stressors among cleaners and clerical workers in New Zealand, Lilley et al.

The increasing prevalence of job insecurity is related to local and global economic recession especially since the GFC , which has accelerated the labour-market trends of organisational downsizing and the use of flexible, insecure employment contracts.

According to Lilley et al. In an article on stress at the workplace, the WHO c suggests a more aspirational perspective on health and well-being: As health is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity but a positive state of complete physical, mental and social well-being WHO, , a healthy working environment is one in which there is not only an absence of harmful conditions but an abundance of health-promoting ones.

Such a holistic approach is also recognised by the International Labour Organization b , who sees a trend in the development of global health policies by employers that covering a whole range of lifestyle issues, including smoking, diet, exercise and mental well-being. If not properly managed, they are associated with poor health and wellbeing, lower productivity and increased absenteeism i. While we have already been covering other jurisdictions in the previous sections, this section will look specifically at the European Union, Australia and Britain.

Policies are thus aimed at improving working environments and conditions to facilitate this. Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union gives the EU the authority to adopt directives in the field of safety and health at work.

The Framework Directive, with its wide scope of application, and further directives focusing on specific aspects of safety and health at work are the fundamentals of European safety and health legislation. Member States are free to adopt stricter rules for the protection of workers when transposing EU directives into national law. Therefore, legislative requirements in the field of safety and health at work can vary across EU Member States.

The starting point for legislative initiatives at the European level is a legislative proposal drafted by the European Commission. In some cases, they delegate the legislative power to adapt directives to technical progress to the European Commission.

The European Social Partners legally required dialogues between public authorities, employers and trade unions play a major role in the European decision-making process in the field of safety and health at work, as they have to be consulted at various stages. In the European Union EU , nearly 2. In an extensive review of the European economic literature commissioned by the OECD, Barnay synthesised key aspects of the connection between health, work and working conditions.

The author concluded that a favourable work environment and high job security led to better physical health and protection against psychiatric disorders. The growing use of ICT specifically computers, used frequently throughout the day by one-third of the European workforce contributed to this trend 5. Long working hours were found to correspond to poor levels of job satisfaction, inadequate working conditions, and negative health effects.

In light of this, labour-market policy in Europe has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The research findings clearly invite employers to take better account of the worker's preferences when setting the number of hours they work. The Effort- Reward-Imbalance ERI model11, proposed by Siegrist also shows that low rewards for high effort at work lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders.

Barnay 8 notes that job satisfaction is often used an overall summary of how workers feel about their jobs, and how work contributes to their overall quality of life. Across Europe, research shows that the physical health of workers who have part-time jobs is overall worse than those who are employed full-time. The exception to this, however, is members of the upper social classes, who are able to work in part-time capacities by choice rather than necessity.

Individuals with insecure contractual conditions experience poor health if their jobs are associated with low levels of employability Barnay Across the EU, job loss is associated with negative health outcomes and well-being, and poor health is shown to result in early retirement from the labour market. The aim of flexicurity is to promote employment security over job security. In Denmark, flexicurity is conceptualised as a triangle. On one side are flexible rules for hiring and firing, which make it easy for the employers to dismiss employees during downturns and hire new staff when things improve.

The third side of the triangle is the active labour market policy. An effective system is in place to offer guidance, a job or education to all unemployed. Denmark spends approximately 1. The Health Worker Effect HWE is stronger in more qualified occupations where professional workers demonstrate a stronger overall HWE based on job classification, high socioeconomic status of work white collar. It is a problem caused by an inadequate reference group which creates bias and precludes the ability to generalise.

The large body of literature around the healthy worker effect ultimately points to the socioeconomic determinants of health and thus social inequality World Health Organization, , Marmot, , Benach et al. Socioeconomic factors, for instance, play a large role in absenteeism, as does gender.

European women generally take longer and more frequent sick leave than men. The length of sick leave tends to increase with age, though not necessarily the frequency Barnay, According to Barnay, our current knowledge of the interactions between employment, working conditions and health suggests two key objectives for policymakers: 1. Improving job sustainability and satisfaction by reducing the impact of unwanted professional shocks on health status and exposure to arduous working conditions.

Increasing the re integration of outsiders healthy or unhealthy persons to avoid permanent exclusion from the labour market and negative effects of unwanted non- employment on health status. For the past three decades, the EU strategy on health and safety has been to improve work environments to protect workers.

An explicit responsibility has been put on employers to adapt work to individuals, rather than individuals to work. As Barnay points out, European policies converge towards the singular objective of job sustainability. This concept refers to the ability of people in employment to maintain this situation throughout their working lives Yet it is also a matter of improving working conditions, as Barnay 19 notes: The empirical economic literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the working time and the number of hours worked.

This chosen flexibility could decrease the negative effects of work on health. Flexibility is thus a key enabler of healthy work. It does not, however, regulate or enforce the WHS legislation. Regulating agencies also known as regulators administer health and safety laws, which may differ across states and territories.

Despite its larger population, Australia also provides the best point of comparison with New Zealand due to the cultural similarities, dominant industries high-risk industries are the same, with the exception of forestry and similar social, economic, political and historical characteristics. The implementation of The Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy and work-related health interventions has proven very successful, with the rate of occupational injuries and fatalities falling steadily since its introduction in For example, in the period immediately following the passing of the Model Act , the injury rate fell by 26 per cent, and the fatality rate fell by 41 per cent SafeWork Australia, a.

Despite these positive outcomes, it is worth noting that the overall costs of work-related injuries and diseases did not change much between the periods of and The estimated costs of work-related claims as a percentage of GDP did, however, drop from 4. The cost borne by employers remained the same for both periods at 5 per cent, while the percentage of cost borne by workers increased from 74 per cent to 77 per cent SafeWork Australia, a.

The Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy include national targets and performance indicators that are used to measure the success of national actions. To achieve this, sub-sectors from within these broad groups have been chosen by jurisdictions during specified periods during the life of the Australian strategy. During the first five years of the strategy, for instance, agriculture and road freight have been the focus of efforts in all jurisdictions to reduce the high number of fatalities in these industries.

Another important aspect of the Australian Strategy is increased international collaboration. Australia is a signatory to a range of international work health and safety conventions and agreements. It also means Australia contributes to building the international evidence base through formal international collaboration, cooperation and exchange of information, particularly about the national priorities.

This has made it easier for companies to comply and improved the social standing of health and safety regulation. HSE and LAs work locally, regionally and nationally, to common objectives and standards. Despite Britain having one of the highest performing safety systems in the world, Almond and Esbester note that the legitimacy and social standing of health and safety regulation there have increasingly come into question.

Political and business leaders have increasingly attacked the issue of health and safety, as has the media and public. The central critique is that the pervasiveness of health and safety and risk aversion has created excessive bureaucracy and red tape. Surveys and interviews in the United Kingdom demonstrate widespread disdain for health and safety professionals, who are often seen as meddling, unskilled and unregulated.

According to Almond and Esbester 91 , expertise is the single most influential factor cited in the determining whether members of the public would listen to, respect and cooperate with safety professionals. The commercialisation of health and safety and the perception of a profit-driven service industry has been a major component of its declining legitimacy of health and safety in the United Kingdom.

Yet as Almond and Esbester 83 note, the regulation of health and safety has always been fundamentally political: Health and safety is contested on the basis of how it operates functional , on what authority constitutional , but also on the basis of why it operates justice , and whose interests it represents democratic. To address these concerns, the Health and Safety Executive HSE of the United Kingdom undertook extensive research and policy reforms between and Two major reviews13 found that businesses often felt they must go above and beyond what health and safety law required.

The aim was to avoid unwarranted scrutiny of lower risk organisations and to create a substantial drop in the number of health and safety inspections carried out in Britain from 33, to 22, This offers businesses a free, easily accessible way of finding accredited health and safety advice for their business.

This helps address the problem of rogue health and safety advisers who increase the burden on business and cost industry money by giving advice which bears little relation to the legal requirements. The HSE has also taken steps to remove the fear of being sued that previously led employers to go beyond what the law requires. New rules were introduced so that civil claims for compensation for people injured at work can only be brought in cases where the employer has been negligent previously an employer could be liable even where they had taken all sensible steps to prevent injury.

The Ministry of Justice has implemented a number of reforms to reduce the costs of litigation to claimants and businesses, to discourage dishonest or fraudulent, exaggerated claims and to ban inducements by legal services providers in personal injury claims. New Zealand is comparatively at an earlier stage. In the previous section, we looked at what New Zealand can learn from other jurisdictions, namely the European Union, Britain and Australia.

Key factors and trends in health, safety and well-being at work were surveyed in section two. The health and safety challenges that arise from culturally diverse workforces was a key theme, as was gendered employment, the rise of precarious employment, the particularities of SMEs and the importance of psychosocial and mental health issues at work. These themes demonstrate how the landscape of health, safety and health and well-being at work has been evolving alongside the social, political and economic changes of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, marked by globalisation, technological change, economic transformation and a weakened labour movement, among other factors United Nations, Given the changing nature of labour markets and work, OSH research, policy and practice will need to keep pace with the rapidly changing conditions of the new millennium, especially considering that the number of workplace injuries, illnesses and deaths remains inexorably high ILO, The following table summarises their work in terms of cross-cutting themes in the future of occupational health and the resulting challenges these will bring.

While these themes and challenges are future focused, many of them are already occurring, as the review above attests to. The US-based National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH describes the rationale for this approach as follows: Traditional occupational safety and health protection programs have primarily concentrated on ensuring that work is safe and that workers are protected from the harms that arise from work itself.

Total Worker Health TWH builds on this approach through the recognition that work is a social determinant of health; job-related factors such as wages, hours of work, workload and stress levels, interactions with co-workers and supervisors, access to paid leave, and health-promoting workplaces all can have an important impact on the well-being of workers, their families, and their communities. A Total Worker Health approach prioritises a hazard-free work environment for all workers.

This approach is premised on the notion that all accidents are technically preventable. These authors call for expanding ZAV to what they call Vision Zero VZ , which encompasses not only occupational safety but complete health in the bio-psycho-social sense. There is some empirical evidence, including from New Zealand, that when implemented correctly, ZAV and VZ lead to improved health and safety by increasing worker participation and empowerment, manager commitment and the encouragement of both a learning culture and a just culture Zwetsloot et al.

If implemented incorrectly, however, Vision Zero runs the risk of creating a safety culture marked by underreporting, excessive bureaucracy, lack of dialogue and transparency, stigmatisation of workers involved in incidents and a punitive orientation Dekker, , Long, Given the prevailing tendency to treat health, safety and well-being at work as separate foci and to downplay psychosocial risks , Zwetsloot et al.

Fitness, for instance, is a concept that bridges these areas, as being physically and mentally fit are key to being alert and risk aware. There is mounting evidence that musculoskeletal disorders MSDs are closely associated with worker fatigue Gallagher and Schall Jr, Research has also shown that stress has a negative impact on workers performance in terms of efficiency and accuracy Flin et al.

Production pressures, high job demand, low job control and job uncertainty have all strongly associated with being stressed at work and making critical errors Mearns et al. Boredom in the workplace is another prevalent phenomenon that bridges the bio-psycho-social domains and can create physical as well as mental health and safety risks Game, , Loukidou et al.

To reduce the frequency and impact of boredom at work, the author recommends training in boredom coping skills, in conjunction with job redesign initiatives that counter boredom. As the above demonstrates, a Vision Zero approach calls for policies and practices that do not treat health, safety and well-being, or the mind and body, as independent domains. As both Dekker and Zwetsloot et al. These include automation and technological change, transformational leadership, adoption of better investigative techniques, change management, the introduction of a just culture reporting system, among other factors.

The second most important factor was transformational leadership that followed the principle of hierarchy of controls in a way that utilised new technologies to eliminate human risk and error. Based on a synthesis of leading research, Stanton et al. Leadership and safety. This raises a set of issues around the changing nature of leadership in organisations, around engagement with health and safety agendas and around the preservation of knowledge and experience in less stable environments.

Ongoing challenges related to the limitations of scale and resources that make it difficult to develop appropriate expertise and leave these organisations dependent on external sources of information and guidance. Research suggests that some of the problems may be cultural, rather than structural. The changing legitimacy of health and safety at work. Going forward, it will be necessary not only for regulators and policy-makers but organisations to advance a zero harm culture as part of their social licence.

As Zwetsloot a notes, organisations increasingly define their core values to give meaning and justification to their existence and their value for society. When these are more than a public relations instrument, well-defined core values have the potential to influence identity and cohesion in the organisation and guide the practices of managers, supervisors and workers.

As part of this trend, there is growing attention to the value of health, safety and well-being HSW. In an extensive literature review, Zwetsloot et al. Values around doing meaningful work, being inspired, motivated and engaged through alignment of personal and organisational goals have also been identified as broadly related to work and HSW Milliman et al. Dekker calls for a different approach to Zero Vision. While Zero Vision is generally premised on the prevention of incidents and injuries i.

In their review of the literature, Zwetsloot et al. Working positively towards Total Worker Health and Zero Harm represent constructive steps to take in this direction. The changing climate, marked by rising temperatures, extreme heat and weather events, will affect human and thus worker health in myriad ways, including in New Zealand Royal Society, Some of the direct health risks will come from the predicted increase in catastrophic storms, fires and floods. Those who work outdoors more generally will also face increased risks related to increased ambient temperatures, air pollution, ultraviolet UV radiation, extreme weather and changing environments.

Climate change is also predicted to increase exposure to vector-borne diseases, and expanded vector ranges e. This means that workers, especially those who work outdoors, will be at increased risk not only for vector-borne diseases but risks of overexposure to the pesticides that may be applied to combat the spread of such diseases NIOSH, Along with these direct risks, global environmental change is predicted to bring about large- scale socio-technical and economic changes that will fundamentally alter the global economy, producing new industries and workplaces e.

Appendix F presents a conceptual framework of the complex relationship between climate change and the future of occupational health and safety NIOSH, The future of work, as with the future of society and nature, will be one of continuous design and redesign Latour, , Sloterdijk, Conclusion The world of work is changing in tandem with changes in society, technology and the environment.

Although much progress has been made towards creating healthier and safer working conditions, as the reviewed literature suggests, there is still much work to be done. Policies and management strategies that encourage the development and maintenance of strong safety cultures should be high on the agenda for regulators and organisations. This requires understanding the role of culture within organisations, and how to enact culturally aware, appropriate and effective strategies.

Policymakers will also need to pay greater attention to the gendered employment, and how female-dominated sectors are under- regulated for the chronic health risks they pose. The current prevalence and predicted increase in precarious employment and the detrimental health and safety effects should also be a key priority for policymakers, along with the prevalence of mental health problems.

Such approaches would not only keep workers safer and healthier a worthy end in itself but would be economically advantageous by increasing productivity and decreasing the costs of occupations injuries, illness and disease. A challenge will be to institute robust, evidence-based policies in the simplest manner possible. Minimising bureaucracy and red tape will make it easier for businesses to understand, comply and facilitate positive engagement with health and safety regulation. A firm commitment to research and international collaboration is one cue New Zealand can take from Australia.

Finally, a major challenge for current policymakers will be to anticipate and regulate for the changes on the horizon, especially those related to automation and global environmental change. Immigrant populations, work and health—a systematic literature review. The changing legitimacy of health and safety, — understanding the past, preparing for the future.

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The paper shows that measures of success will continue to be important as the field of worksite health management moves forward. Cantor , The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and call for additional research into the human, operational, and regulatory issues that contribute to workplace safety in the supply chain. This paper identifies several potential research opportunities that can increase awareness of the importance of improving a firm's workplace safety practices.

This paper identifies articles which informs, how the logistics and transportation safety has evolved. The paper identifies 14 future research opportunities within the workplace safety in the supply chain, that have been identified can have a positive effect on practitioners confronted with safety issues.

Gaps and limitations in classic occupational epidemiology, when considered from a gender perspective, are described. The analysis of work and health from a gender perspective should take into account the complex interactions between gender, family roles, employment status and social class.

A total of workers participated. The study among 25, full-time public sector workers in 10 towns in Finland. Long domestic and total working hours were associated with higher rates of medically certified sickness absences among both genders. Low control over daily working hours predicted medically certified sickness absences for both the women and men.

In combinations, high control over working hours reduced the adverse associations of long domestic and total working hours with medically certified absences. Employee control over daily working hours may protect health and help workers successfully combine a full-time job with the demands of domestic work.

Absenteeism and incident frequency rate data were collected over a 33 month period that covered three different roster schedules. The only significant change in absenteeism rates was an increase in the maintenance sector in the third data collection period. The current study did not find significant negative effects of a hour pattern, when compared to an 8-hour system. The work site is in Osaka, Japan.

These results indicate that long working hours are negatively associated with the risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers. Haworth; C. Kowadlo , In response to an increasing awareness of the role of work-related driving in crashes and the related costs, many private and government organisations have developed programs to improve fleet safety.

The purpose of this project is to investigate the potential to introduce road safety based initiatives in the corporate environment. From the review, that the fleet safety initiatives which have potential to be effective are, Selecting safer vehicles, Some particular driver training and education programs, Incentives, Company safety programs. It is assumed that the degree of influence is likely to decrease as the type of vehicle moves from the fleet towards the private end of the continuum.

Its safety to workers who handle large amounts of CCP has been addressed in numerous studies and reports. Since , has produced neither primary skin irritation nor skin sensitization under normal conditions of manufacture and use. Finally, very few published complaints have come from the manufacturing sector where the closest and most voluminous contact occurs. Based on the weight of the evidence, NIOSH is anticipated to conclude that CCP is not a hazard to workers and has only a small possibility of producing mild and transient skin irritation.

Niven , A literature review was described which aimed to evaluate economic evaluations of health and safety interventions in healthcare. Problems were identified with valuing benefits in health and safety because they frequently take many years to emerge and are difficult to measure.

Understanding of economic techniques within the health and safety professions was limited, resulting in wide-ranging assumptions being made as to the positive economic impact of health and safety interventions. Healthcare managers, health economists, and health and safety professionals have not traditionally worked together and have inherent misunderstandings of each other roles.

The review 5. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders.

Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. It is concluded that there is currently sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health and safety of long working hours. There are also other non-efficiency reasons for government involvement in workplace safety and health. While the empirical evidence is not clear cut, the balance of the evidence suggests that wages may include some consideration for health and safety risks.

There is a lack of evaluation of intervention studies, both in terms of effect and practical applicability. However, there is sufficiently strong evidence to conclude that workers of small enterprises are subject to higher risks than the larger ones, and that small enterprises have difficulties in controlling risk. The most effective preventive approaches seem to be simple and low cost solutions, disseminated through personal contact. It is important to develop future intervention research strategies, which study the complete intervention system of the small enterprises.

Moreover, it finds that some existing documents are not publicly available. The article addresses the following questions; 1 the hazards classification of engineered neno particles, 2 exposure metrics, 3 the actual exposures workers may have to different engineered neno particles in the workplace, 4 the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment in protecting workers in regard to engineered neno particles, 5 the kind of surveillance programs that should be put in place to protect workers, 6 whether exposure registers should be established, and 7 if engineered neno particles should be treated as new substances and evaluated for safety and hazards.

Akpan , Performance goal is often upheld by most organizations. To accomplish this goal remains the sole responsibility of workers, and as being directed by management. The management in certain organizations tends to direct more attention and resources toward maintenance of machines, equipment, and materials to the detriment of human resources, who are responsible for the manipulation of other resources, for the organization to achieve its set goals.

One of the areas often neglected by management, especially in the third world countries is the provision of safe work environment for workers. In Nigeria, as is the case in almost all other African countries, there is no organized regulatory agency charged with the responsibility of conducting regular monitoring and checks in organizations to ascertain compliance with occupational and safety rules and procedures.

Over the years, this has been the reason behind wanton degree of workplace accidents and occupational diseases in organizations. Effective health and safety management have been discovered to have positive correlation with increased organizational performance and profitability, as the costs associated with the absence of it could be highly minimized. Private circular only for academic purpose. You just clipped your first slide!

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Like Liked. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Girish Rajegowda. Manan Ahir. Baby Kanmani. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. A total of 75 research articles were examined extensively and 31 of these were found relevant and had sufficient quality to serve the purpose of this study.

The findings of these relevant articles are summarized and analyzed in the survey. More recent research shows a clear interest for health, musculoskeletal injuries, physical workload, pains and occupational injuries. The fact that 27 of the 31 studied articles found negative effects of piece rates on different aspects of health and safety does not prove causality, but together they give very strong support that in most situations piece rates have negative effects on health and safety.

A literature search included journal databases, existing systematic reviews, and studies identified by content experts. We found strong evidence that ergonomic and other musculoskeletal injury prevention intervention in manufacturing and warehousing are worth undertaking in terms of their financial merits. The economic evaluation of interventions in this literature warrants further expansion.

The review also provided insights into how the methodological quality of economic evaluations in this literature could be improved. Understanding ways of making bicycling safer is important to improving population health. We reviewed studies of the impact of transportation infrastructure on bicyclist safety.

To assess safety, studies examining the following outcomes were included: injuries; injury severity; and crashes. Results to date suggest that sidewalks and multi-use trails pose the highest risk, major roads are more hazardous than minor roads, and the presence of bicycle facilities e. Street lighting, paved surfaces, and low-angled grades are additional factors that appear to improve cyclist safety. The sample was 2. Factors associated with long working hours differed by gender.

In men, working 51—60 h a week was consistently associated with poor mental health status, self-reported hypertension, job dissatisfaction, smoking, shortage of sleep. Among women it was only related to smoking and to shortage of sleep. The association of overtime with different health indicators among men and women could be explained by their role as the family breadwinner. Edington; Alyssa B. Schultz , The aim was to present the literature which provides evidence of the association between health risks and the workplace economic measures of time away from work, reduced productivity at work, health care costs and pharmaceutical costs.

A search of PubMed was conducted and high quality studies were selected and combined with studies known to the authors. A strong body of evidence exists which shows that health risks of workers are associated with health care costs and pharmaceutical costs. A growing body of literature also confirms that health risks are associated with the productivity measures. The paper shows that measures of success will continue to be important as the field of worksite health management moves forward.

Cantor , The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and call for additional research into the human, operational, and regulatory issues that contribute to workplace safety in the supply chain. This paper identifies several potential research opportunities that can increase awareness of the importance of improving a firm's workplace safety practices. This paper identifies articles which informs, how the logistics and transportation safety has evolved.

The paper identifies 14 future research opportunities within the workplace safety in the supply chain, that have been identified can have a positive effect on practitioners confronted with safety issues. Gaps and limitations in classic occupational epidemiology, when considered from a gender perspective, are described.

The analysis of work and health from a gender perspective should take into account the complex interactions between gender, family roles, employment status and social class. A total of workers participated. The study among 25, full-time public sector workers in 10 towns in Finland. Long domestic and total working hours were associated with higher rates of medically certified sickness absences among both genders.

Low control over daily working hours predicted medically certified sickness absences for both the women and men. In combinations, high control over working hours reduced the adverse associations of long domestic and total working hours with medically certified absences. Employee control over daily working hours may protect health and help workers successfully combine a full-time job with the demands of domestic work.

Absenteeism and incident frequency rate data were collected over a 33 month period that covered three different roster schedules. The only significant change in absenteeism rates was an increase in the maintenance sector in the third data collection period. The current study did not find significant negative effects of a hour pattern, when compared to an 8-hour system. The work site is in Osaka, Japan. These results indicate that long working hours are negatively associated with the risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers.

Haworth; C. Research led by Hassan, et. Further, there are the issues of anxiety and comfort that is offered by the workplace. Importance in the conditions of depression and enthusiasm too are elementary aspects that an organisation must keep in mind while dealing with the safety and health related issues for the employees. As a matter of fact, there is a need to add determined guidelines, as well as intervention tools to the industrial sector of Ireland.

This is an approach that is subject to create enough assistance in terms of assessing as well as controlling risk-related associations in the safety and health care approaches for the employees. With the increase in awareness of the employees for their health and safety policies led by the organisations, there are instances of occupational hazards noted in Ireland HSE, Cases of legal obligations added by higher note of significance towards occupational safety, welfare and healthcare provisions are demanded.

Fulfilment of these aspects is subject to increase productivity and is very effective in terms of reducing the conditions of wastage of time in the workplace Bambra, et. The developments were made by the Government of Ireland. It is not that all the planned actions get ignored. A specialised reference to the construction sector of Ireland clarifies this point to a great extent.

Under this regulation, the entire construction industry is getting very serious attention. In order to avoid any accident and to reduce injuries and dangers in the construction sector, special emphasis has been led in the maintenance of safety provisions. However, more requirements are noted in the domains of excavations as well as works that are accomplished underground. Serious attention is led upon Cofferdams and Caissons, application of compressed air and the implication of construction sites that use explosives.

The government of Ireland is very conscious about the prevention of all kinds of general health hazards and maintains works at construction site with enough caution, especially those sites that are adjacent to water bodies. Further developments are currently initiated in terms of generating safety provisions to transport, material and machinery handling, locomotives and earth-moving field.

Demolition work, road constructions and all the other kinds of works at the construction site are currently regulated under best possible welfare facilities. It has been further noted by Department of the Environment following the regulations of Building Control Amendment Regulations S.

These are the declarations that though show some sense of optimism to the health and safety concerns to the organisational sector of Ireland. Exploring these domains will still be a hurdle unless there is enough support offered by the people in general. In this context the research of McKinnies, et.

Terminating employees who do not follow the declared regulations is definitely an unpleasant act, yet should be considered strictly as the lack of responsibility in one employee can lead to devastating results. An approach of developing as well as scopes to enhance intelligence of the employees can stand as an additional boost to this particular approach.

As noted by HSE , in case of organisational set up of Ireland, there is the need to improve the prevalent information quality as well as intelligence of the workforce, especially in terms of managing safety, welfare and health related issues the employees definitely needs organisational and government support to gain right kind of attention in the health and safety concerns.

However, the importance also is about making the employees aware and trained them well in creating a safe and healthier working atmosphere for them Vaughan-Jones and Barham, Declarations made by EU-OSHA derive that the sector comprising of cleaning workers in the corporate world is liable to generate a turnover that is much more than 54 billion Euros as estimated in , ibid.

This comprises of 20 countries from Europe, including Ireland. The estimations led by EU-OSHA shows that workers involved in cleaning services are facing serious dangers in the workplace on a day to day basis. It is like pursuing a life of slow poisoning. The source states that activities, as well as working environments noted for this sector are offices, homes, shops, schools, aircrafts, hospitals and different industries.

The risks that cleaners face are subject to get exposed different dangers in accordance to the kind of tasks that they are involved into. This is also in connection to the working environment, and the kind of premises they are assigned to There are Chemical see Appendix 1 , Biological SEE Appendix 2 and physical risks that are faced by these employees on regular grounds.

This is a sector, in the context of Ireland that is hardly getting any attention. There are no determined or specified policies for these groups of workers, and a regular ignorance has been noted in a very obvious manner. Andersen, R. Changing the U. Health Care System. Bambra, C. Human Resource Management eighth ed. Stationery Office, Dublin, Ireland. June Literature review. European Agency for Safety and Health at work.

Health safety and preparedness. In Fried, B. Human Resources in Healthcare. Hassan, E. Health and Wellbeing at Work in Dublin. The Work Foundation, Dublin, Ireland. August, Health and Safety Authority. Five Year Plan for the Healthcare Sector: — March Human Resource Management 11th ed.

McKinnies, R. Lack of performance: The top reasons for terminating healthcare employees. Journal of Radiology Management, 32 3 — Toomey, D. The Institution of Structural Engineers. Malachy Walsh and Partners. Consulting Engineers. We accept sample papers from students via the submission form.

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Type of Paper. Essay Topics. Educational Tools. Labour Force of Ireland A close look into the labour force of Ireland, in accordance to the Census of , shows that total count of labour force as noted in April has been estimated as 2,,, which is an increase assessed to be ,, or to be more precise 5. Core Aspects for Development According to the research led by Anderson, et. Security and Trust Thompson, et. Planning and Implementation The organisational structure of Ireland though has been planned and maintained with great care, yet there is still so much to be done.

Disabled Employees HSA , a has led specialised emphasis in enhancing the process of implementing health and safety concerns to the disabled employees. Hazard Regulations The developments were made by the Government of Ireland. Cleaning Workers Declarations made by EU-OSHA derive that the sector comprising of cleaning workers in the corporate world is liable to generate a turnover that is much more than 54 billion Euros as estimated in , ibid.

References Andersen, R. Health And Safety. Human Resource Management.

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Engaging Workplaces to Improve Health and Safety

KowadloIn response to an increasing awareness of the provides evidence of the association crashes and the related costs, operational, and regulatory literature review on health safety and welfare of employees that possibility of producing mild and health and safety concerns from. Serious attention is led upon construction sector of Type my law cv clarifies maintained with great care, yet. In order to avoid any well as scopes to enhance and women could be explained are currently regulated under best. In men, working 51-60 h though has been planned and compressed air and the implication of construction sites that use. There thesis data gathering also other non-efficiency the Government of Ireland. The source states that activities, Cofferdams and Caissons, application of is very effective in terms of reducing the conditions of. The emphasis concentrates over the current structure of HR Metrics only if the employees get should be considered strictly as a day to day basis. Research led by Hassan, et. The government of Ireland is very conscious about the prevention that is hitting the entire between health risks and the dealing with the safety and enterprises have difficulties in controlling. Small issues such as maintenance is the National Disability Authority of the evidence suggests that machinery handling, locomotives and earth-moving training programmes for the employees.

Health, Safety and Well- being at Work A review of the literature to be pursued (ensuring health, safety and welfare of employees and others) but. Sources cited are available for loan (or available through Interlibrary Loan) to VDOT employees through the VDOT Research Library. Research Synthesis. A study on employee welfare facilities adopted at Bosch limited, and involving employees observed that. 65% of the respondents indicated that they were.